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TYPE 1
PRIMARY
SUCCESSION
· Occurs on bare land
· Examples:
· Glacier retreating
· Volcanic eruption
· Sand piled onto dunes
· Mud deposits in estuaries A pioneer species must inhabit the bare land this species
· Rock face should:
· Produce vast quantities of seeds which can be dispersed
· Stages:
onto isolated land
· Lichens (pioneers)
· Moss · Rapidly germinate
· Ferns · Be able to photosynthesise
· Grass · Be able to fix nitrogen as there is a lack of nutrients on
· Shrubs new land
· Trees
· Be tolerant to extreme conditions…read more

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TYPE 2
SECONDARY
SUCCESSION
This type of succession occurs on
land that has previously been
inhabited.
Soil is already present along with
nutrients for growth.
The pioneer species may be
Examples of secondary succession:
larger plants such as shrubs as
the conditions are less hostile · Forest fires
than in primary succession.
· Tree felling areas
· Abandoned farmland
· Landfills
· Road sides…read more

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Conditions for the pioneer species.
In primary succession In secondary succession
· Hostile conditions · Soil layer present
· No soil to retain water · Containing some nutrients and water
· Little nutrients for growth · Some seeds remain
· Temperature may fluctuate more due · Shrubs and grass can inhabit as
to land being bare pioneer species due to conditions
· No shelter from wind or weather being less hostile
conditions
· Only spores and seeds can inhabit
due to hostile conditions…read more

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Common features of succession
· None living environments become less hostile (soil forms, more nutrients,
more shelter)
· Greater number and variety of habitats develop
· Increased biodiversity (diversity most in middle but decreases towards
climax due to dominant species outcompeting)
· More complex food webs therefore increased biomass.…read more

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Climatic Climax
· Caused by abiotic factors such as temperature, availability of water and
seasons.
· E.g. In UK mild temperatures, water
is available therefore climax contains
large trees if deep soil is present.
· E.g. In polar climates, low temp,
not much water so shrubs will be the
climax as large trees can't grow.…read more

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