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DNA and Meiosis

Structure of DNA

DNA is the chemical that determines inherited characteristics and it contains vast amounts of
information in the form of the genetic code. DNA is made up of just three basic components that
combine to form a nucleotide.

A sugar called a deoxyribose
A phosphate…

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Function of DNA

DNA is the hereditary material responsible for passing genetic information from cell to cell and
generation to generation. The DNA molecule is adapted to carry out its funcion in a number of

It is very stable and can pass from generation to generation without change

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In eukaryotic cells, the DNA molecules are larger, form a line rather than a circle, and
occur in association with proteins to form strutures called chromosomes.

Chromosomes are only visible as distinct structures when a cell is dividing, at which time they
appear as two threads (chromatids) which join at…

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called an allele. Each individual inherits one allele from each of its parents, which may be the
same or different.

Any differences in the base sequence of an allele of a single gene may result in a different
sequence of amino acids being coded for. This different amino acid sequence…

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Locus ­ the position of a gene on a chromosome or DNA molecule

Independent segregation:

During meiosis 1, each chromosome lines up alongside its homologous partner. In humans, this
means that there will be 23 homologous pairs lying side by side, arranged randomly. One of each
pair will pass to…


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