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Discuss the impact of one infectious disease on health, economic development and lifestyle.
HIV is thought to have developed from the monkey population, but how it came to exist within
human population is yet to be fully proved. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus which
weakens the Immune system making those HIV positive very vulnerable to common illnesses. Most
people who have HIV go on to develop AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) which can
trigger cancers and tumours.
HIV/AIDS have caused many impacts on the economy. South Africa has the largest number of people
living with HIV/AIDS in the world (4.2million). If there are no drastic reductions in this number, it is
estimated that the GDP will shrink by 17% in 2010. In Zambia, Barclays Bank have been losing 36 of
its 1,600 employees per year, a death rate 10 times higher than in a typical European branch. Again
in Zambia, WHO state that between 8-25% of doctors could die from HIV/AIDS from 2002-2005.
These two facts mean that Zambia will find it very difficult to cut down the number of people living
with HIV/AIDS and so the number is likely to increase even more. HIV/AIDS is tramsmitted through
and exchange of bodily fluids, therefore the most common way to catch the disease is through
sexual intercourse. People between the ages of 25-45 are the working population and also the
sexually active ages, therefore the working population is decreasing dramatically in LEDCs and again
means that it's difficult for the economy to grow. People then enter the poverty circle, and hence, it
becomes too expensive for people living in LEDCs to afford Anti Retrial Viral drugs.
Health is clearly affected from HIV/AIDS; life expectancy (LE) is reduced significantly. Before
HIV/AIDS became such a problem the LE was predicted be about 67, but in 2005 the actual LE was 41
due to HIV/AIDS spreading. There is an increased infant mortality rate as bodily fluids are transferred
from mother to child, through birth or through breast feeding for example. As mentioned above, the
spread of AIDS restricts a countries development and in turn restricts the development of health
care. Death rates also clearly increase as a result.
Any disease, whether it be a disease of affluence or of infectious always has an affect on ones'
lifestyle. Education should be at the heart of any country and it is very badly affected by HIV/AIDS.
The loss of teachers due to the disease means that children must be crammed into one classroom as
there aren't enough teachers. Also, families struggle to pay fees as they're spending large amounts
of money on ARV drugs. Many children must also take time off school to care for their relatives. This
will have a huge knock on effect in the future when a large proportion of the working population are
Describe the distribution of an infectious disease (6)
HIV/AIDS is predominantly found mainly in LEDCs where there are unclean water supplies and a lack
of education on contraception. Sub-Saharaan Africa is the area where HIV/AIDS is the highest, there
have been a total of 24.7 million infections and 2.1million deaths. Currently in South Africa, 4.2million
people are living with HIV/AIDS. South/South East Asia have a total of 7.8 million infections, and
590,000 deaths. These are the two areas in the world with a highest number of people living with
HIV/AIDS and number of deaths. The Carribean and Oceana are much lower with just a total of
331,000 infections between them and less than 25,000 deaths between them. Western and Central
Europe is towards the lower end with 12,000 deaths and perhaps surprisingly is North America. A
total of 1.4 million infections and 18,000 deaths, which shows that while the number of infections is
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HIV/AIDS is much lower due to a better health
care than poor areas like Sub-Sahaaran Africa and South/South East Asia.
Compare the distribution of 2 diseases. (6)
The distribution of Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD) is very different to the distribution of HIV/AIDS.
They are triggered by different things and have very different affects on the body though with the
CVD is a disease of affluence and therefore affects MEDCs much more than it affects LEDCs