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A) Outline Clinical Characteristics of Schizophrenia
There are several ways of diagnosing and classifying schizophrenia and there is a whole array of
potential symptoms, not all of which have to be present in an individual at any one time.
Schizophrenia is often described as a psychosis, a disorder in which the patient loses touch with
reality. It is a disintegration of personality that affects thinking, perception, memory emotions,
motivations, interpersonal skills, and behaviour.…read more

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Research, which has investigated
consistency of diagnosis between different psychiatrists diagnosing the same patient, shows that
the level of agreement is poor.
Research questioning the reliability of the diagnostic manuals has been conducted by Cooper et al
1972, who showed American and British psychiatrists the same video-taped clinical interviews with a
patient, and asked them to make a diagnosis. They found that New York psychiatrists diagnosed
schizophrenia twice as often, while the London psychiatrists diagnosed mania and depression twice
as often.…read more

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Although most psychiatrists now use standardised interview schedules such as Wing's 1974 Present
State Examination or the computer program CATEGO, there still many cross-cultural differences
which remain unresolved, for example the Chinese prefer to use their own classification system.
However, the Westernised classification systems do include culture-bound syndromes such as KORO,
AMOK and DHAT. These culture-bound syndromes illustrate just how varied mental disorder can be
and also show a great variety of reactions to physiological imbalance.…read more

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Schizophrenics may also be
ostracised by family and friends, and may get worse due to the stress of being rejected by society.
On the other hand, there may be positive psychological and social benefits to receiving a diagnosis ­
people may feel relieved to be given a diagnosis as they may feel that someone now understands
their problems and is trying to help them.…read more



These are really great, thank you :-)

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