schizophrenia- clinical characteristics.

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  • schizophrenia- clinical characteristics.
    • positive symptoms (type 1)- involves: displaying the behaviour concerning a loss of touch with reality.
      • hallucinations- bizzare, unreal perceptions of the environment.
        • auditory hallucination
          • hearing voices that others can hear
        • visual hallucination
          • seeing lights, objects or faces that others cant see
        • olfactory hallucination
          • smelling things that others cant smell
        • tactile hallucination
          • feeling that bugs are crawling on or under the skin or something touching the skin
          • formication is the namr for a sensation- resembles insects crawling on the skin.
            • sensation is so real to the person experiencing it
            • Kathryn Lewandowski et al (2009)- 20% of people with schizophrenia have tactile halucinations- percieving sensations that someone is touching the skin.
      • delusions- bizzare beliefs that seem real to the schizophrenic- but are not real.
        • delusions or persecution or paranoid delusions-
          • beliefs that people are plotting against them, being spied upon, talked about by strangers or deliberately victimised.
        • delusions or grandeur
          • beliefs that theyare someone grand or famous or belief that they have special magical powers.
        • delusions of refrence
          • events in the environment appear to be directly related to them.
      • thought disorder- odd reasoning
        • disordered thinking
          • evident through examining the speech of those individuals with schizophrenia
          • the persons thoughts and discourse seem to jump from one topic to another, for no apparent reason
          • patients speech might be muddled and incoherent- reffered to as a 'word salad'
            • means: frustrating for those with schizophrenia and for those trying to communicate with them
          • some individuals with schizophrenia sometimes report that the thoughts in their heafs are not their own- thought insertion
            • person belives the thoughts have been placed there by a third party
    • negative symptoms (type 2)- involves: displaying of behaviours concerning disruption of normal emotions and actions.
      • occur in long lasting episodes and are resistant to medication
      • negative symptoms- suffers not being able to function effectively in society (relationships, work etc)
      • algolia
        • reduced fluency of speech or poverty of speech
        • people with schizophrenia lack meaning, even with short simple answers can pose a problem
      • anhedonia
        • an individual does not react appropriately to pleasureable experiences
      • avolition or apathy
        • avolition occurs when people seem to be indifferent to or unconcerned with whats going on around them
        • distinct lack of goal-directed behaviour and loss of interestin normal goals, which people who are unaware of the individuals diagnosis may percieve just as disinterest
      • cataleptic stupor
        • reduced motor activity- schizophrenic could stand motionless in bizzare positions
        • at the other end of the spectrum- the person with schizophrenia may make fast, repetitve and useless movments
      • echopraxia
        • repetitive echoing of words spoken by others or immitations of the mannerisms of other people.
      • disorganised speech
        • innapropriate speech
        • speech patterns are repetitive- do not rise and fall like a normal speech pattern does


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