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Direct Theories
Direct Theories are based on the view that the media does have an immediate and
powerful influence on their audience.

Much of the concern about the media having a direct effect centres on the issue of
imitation of violence and their influence on children, young people and other…

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Indirect Theories
Indirect theories acknowledge that the media have an effect on audiences but see this
as the product of interaction between different factors.

Such theories look beyond a simple one-way effects process that sees the media
conveying meaning to the audience and looks at the way audiences receive media…

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See the media as shaping the norms and values of the audience. The process happens
gradually over long-term exposure to the media.

For example, sociologist are worried that publications like Sugar and Bliss, two
top-selling teenage lifestyle magazines for young women, when read regularly, come to
shape identity and behaviour.…


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