Hypodermic Syringe model
- Media is like magic bullet, literally injects the message straight away.
- Media targets certain people
- Assumes three things about audience:
- Passive-Don't put up a fight
- Homogenous-All the same
- Blank pages-Waiting to 'lap it up'
Feshbach and Singer
- Media can have a direct effect by being cathartic ie a release of tension and emotion. If people watched violent films they felt less aggressive aferwards.
- Listening to music decreased depression and reduced suicidal tendancies.
Two step flow model
Katz and Lazarfeld
- Interaction between people where an opinion leader influences views of others. Opinion leader often has had more exposure to the media and comes to be regarded as an expert.
- Opinion leader takes on the media messages and passes them to another person, therefore two steps for media to have an effect.
Structured Interpretation model
The effect of the media messages can be viewed in 3 ways. Morely argues we can have 1 of 3 responses which is either:
- Dominant-You agree/go along with it
- Oppositional-You disagree/have different views
- Negotiated-Somewhere between dominant and oppositional
Cultural Effects model
Argues that we receive media messages depending on our cultural background. E.g. Gender, social class, ethnicity or age. Some parts of the media could be interpreted differently E.g. Young peoples' views on binge drinking differ from older peoples.
Uses and Gratification model
Blunler and McQuail (1968)
- Argue people get what theywant from the media. E.g. Old people may watch soaps for companionship or family life whilst young people may watch 'skins' for relationship advice.
Drip Drip Effect
Influences from the media build up over time. E.g. Ferguson-Cult of femininity and Wolf-Beauty myth
The Selective Filter model
- When viewing the media think of a sieve
- Selective exposure
- Selective perception
- Selective retention