Explanation, treatments, symptoms and features of depression

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Summer
  • Created on: 09-06-14 18:04
Preview of Depression

First 433 words of the document:

Unipolar Depression
Also known as clinical depression, or major depressive disorder, unipolar depression is a mood
disorder, characterised by varying degrees of sadness, disappointment, loneliness, hopelessness and
guilt. It is a relatively common mental health disorder, with an estimated 3.5 million sufferers in the UK.
Unipolar disorder should be distinguished from bipolar disorder. Whereas unipolar depression is a
mood disorder which is seen as a constant disturbance to mood, bipolar disorder involves fluctuations
between moods of manic depression and mania, which is not the case with unipolar depression.
Features of unipolar depression include:
Depression is twice more common in women than men, although men are more likely to commit
suicide. However girls tend to rely more on social relationships as a source of self-definition and
self-validation, and their friendships are also characterised by greater intimacy, self-disclosure, empathy
and emotional support which helps to mitigate genetic vulnerability to depression (but not so in boys)
Different people have different courses of the disorder; some are only affected once in others it is
The peak time for depression is between 50 and 60yrs, although it typically occurs between 30 and
People who suffer any form of depression usually live shorter lives, possibly due to a link between
depression and heart disease and other stress-related illnesses.
· Individual has feelings of intense sadness most of the day, nearly every day as
indicated by subjective report or observation by others ­in children/teens this
may be an irritable mood. They may find that feelings of intense lethargy and
apathy tend to dominate.
· There is a lack of enjoyment or pleasure in activities which used to elicit such
feelings nearly or all the time as indicated by subjective report or observation.
Significant weight loss or gain (5%+ per month without cause) or an
increase/decrease in appetite daily in children they may not meet expected
weight gains.
· Sufferer finds it difficult to get off to sleep and difficult to wake up
· Their levels of motivation are very low nearly every day as reported subjectively
or observation.
The sufferer may show recurrent thoughts of suicide (with or without plan) or of
· The sufferer may find it difficult to concentrate or be indecisive nearly every day
· Psychomotor agitation (i.e. selfharm or purposeless/unintentional repetitive
behaviour) or psychomotor retardation (slowing down of thoughts and a

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The symptoms must not meet the criteria for a mixed episode or bereavement (more
than 2months and marked by functional impairment) or be due to the direct
psychological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. The symptoms
must have caused clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational etc
functioning.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

The psychodynamic model of depression (Freud 1917)
Some cases of depression can be linked to childhood experiences of loss or rejection in the family
that altered the forming personality.
Adult depression is a type of delayed mourning for this childhood loss, it occurs when a child's anger
about being separated from their loved one is not easily expressed at the time and is repressed, to
surface later.
The psychological factors and physical factors can be explained through this model.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

N ICE (2004)
r eco mme nds BD T for
comp l
ex cases of
depression w h er
e pati
a wide r ange of
symp t
depression.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

NICE (2004) recommend psychodynamic therapies for more complex depression cases as it
is shown that not all patients benefit from it.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Of those who had a life event, 33% of those who developed depression had negative evaluation of the self
and 13% did not.
Low self-esteem had no effect on vulnerability to depression unless a provoking agent occurred, then it
increased the likelihood.
Where a woman had said she had confided in core support, but not crisis support and they felt let down,
42% developed depression.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »