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Personal Privacy
Right to privacy is a fundamental human right
Development of databases has led to storage of
much personal information without the knowledge
or permission of the individual
It is often felt that even the use of names and
addresses for mail shots is an invasion of privacy
The Data Protection Act of 1984 grew out of concern
about personal privacy…read more

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Data Protection Acts of 1984 and 1998
The act covers `personal data' which are `automatically
It works on two levels:
­ To give individuals certain statutory rights
­ To require those who record and use personal data on computers
to be open about the use and follow proper procedures
The Data protection Act of 1998 was passed to implement a
European Data Protection Directive.…read more

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The Data Protection Registrar
The 1984 Act established the office of Registrar
The 1998 Act changed the title to Data Protection
With effect from 20th January 2001 the title is now
­ Information Commissioner
whose duties include:
­ administering a public register of Data Controllers with broad
details of the data held;
­ Disseminating information on the Act and how it works
­ Promoting compliance with the Data Protection Principles
­ Considering complaints about breaches of Principles or the Act.…read more

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The Data Protection Principles (1998)
1. Personal data must be obtained and processed fairly and
2. Personal data must be held for specified (limited) and
lawful purposes;
3. Personal data must be adequate, relevant and not
4. Personal data must be accurate and up-to-date;
5. Personal data must not be kept longer than necessary;
6. Personal data must be processed in accordance with the
data subject's rights;
7. Personal data must be kept secure;
8.…read more

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Useful Definitions from the 1984 Act
`Personal data'
­ Information about living, identifiable individuals. Personal data do
not have to be particularly sensitive information and can be as little
as name and address.
`automatically processed'
­ Processed by a computer or other technology such as document
image processing systems.
`data users' now called `data controllers' under 1998 Act
­ Those who control the contents and use of a collection of personal
data.…read more

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Similar Definitions from the 1998 Act
Personal data
­ means data which relates to a living individual who
can be identified from those data or from those data
and other information which is in the possession of
the data controller.
A data controller
­ is a person who determines the purposes for which
and the manner in which any personal data are, or are
to be processed.
Every data controller who is processing personal
data must notify unless they are exempt.…read more

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Data Controller's Register entry
This processing description includes:
­ The purposes for which personal data are being or are
to be processed e.g. provision of financial services
and advice
­ a description of the data subjects about whom data
are or are to be held e.g. customers and clients
­ a description of the data classes e.g. personal details,
financial details
­ a list of the recipients of data e.g.…read more

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Possible Exemptions
Some not for profit organisations
Processing of personal data for personal, family or
household affairs (including recreational purposes).
Data controllers who only process personal data for the
maintenance of a public register.
Data controllers who only process personal data for any
one or all of the following purposes for their own
business.…read more

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Rights of Data subjects
An individual is entitled, upon written request, to
be supplied with a copy of any personal data held
about yourself.…read more


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