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Sociologist The theory Evaluation
Durkheim He argued that crime has 2 characteristics: Bonds are strengthened
Inevitable : crime occurs everywhere and we within society when people
have to try and reduce the impacts of this deviate from the accepted
Universal : crime exists in every society norms and values…

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Cohen Status frustration This view is gender blind
This occurs as a result of the lower class being frustrated and doesn't look at the
with the running of the educational system and the fact reasons that girls turn to
that they experience cultural deprivation. As a result of crime

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Social action/ Interactionist
Sociologist The theory Evaluation
Becker The deviant is the one to whom the label has been Not all stages can be applied
applied, and the deviant behaviour is the behaviour to every person the commits a
that people label. criminal act
Looked at home someone an become…

Page 4

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Sociologist The theory The evaluation
Gordon Capitalist society is criminogenic Japan is a capitalist society but
Criminogenic means that crime is an in- built and the rates of crime are low-
natural outgrowth of a capitalist society which is suggesting that capitalist
emphasized by economic self- interest, greed and society…

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Health and safety regulations are less enforced e.g.
escape of poisonous gas from a plant in India led to the
deaths of 3,000 people but no criminal charges were
ever brought against the company owners, yet the Gulf
of Mexico spill led to the company being charged.
Box He argues…

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Neo- Marxist perspectives
Sociologist The theory Evaluation
Taylor, Come up with a fully social theory of deviance- this Too deterministic
Walton theory combined Marxism and labelling theory. Feminists say that it doesn't
and Young 1. The wider origins of the deviant act- the have a focus on women and

Page 7

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Right realism
Sociologist The theory Evaluation
Wilson Biological reasons that people commit more crime The research that was
and Wilson and Hernstein suggest some people are innately committed by sociologists
Hernstein more strongly predisposed to commit crime than would have been on criminals
others. Especially those who have personality traits…

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Left realism
Sociologist The theory Evaluation
Lea and Looked at the impact of crime on the daily lives of Left realism does offer ideas
Young vulnerable groups. The offenders were often from these about what can be done
groups too, but their criminality could not be excused or about crime,…

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Gender and crime
Sociologist The theory Evaluation
Sex role theory and gender socialization
Gender socialization encourages women to adopt
feminine characteristics such as such as being more
emotional, less competitive, less tough, aggressive
and more averse to taking risks than men. Women's
traditional roles involve being wives, mothers and

Page 10

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Adler Argues that if feminists are right and women only The female crime rate began
commit less time due to patriarchy then greater in the 1950's long before the
equality should see the rise in female offenders. liberation movement in the
This equality will bring about more female 60s.


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