First 425 words of the document:
Water conservation and management
Better use of water resources can be achieved in several ways:
increase the total amount of water available for use
distribute water more effectively
use water more efficiently
Increasing the availability of water -
Availability of water can be increased by abstracting more river water, groundwater or
seawater and by building storage reservoirs. Small scale collection may reduce the
demand for public supplies, for example by collecting rainwater for garden use or low
quality uses such as flushing toilets. Increased abstraction is limited by the amount
available or by the energy and financial costs of purification.
Catchment management -
Catchment management can make the available water supplies more useable.
reservoirs can be used to maintain the levels in times of low natural flow and to store
water during periods of flood risk.
The prevention of pollution upstream of water abstraction points reduces the amount
of water that is too polluted to use and makes purification easier.
Aquifer recharge -
Partially depleted aquifers can be recharged during periods of surplus surface water.
Water from the River Thames is pumped underground into the chalk aquifers during
wintertime when there is lots of rain and the river level is high.
Better distribution of water -
Reducing distribution losses -
In countries where water distribution networks that have been established for a long
time, there may be pipes that have cracked and leak.. In the UK 10% of water that has
been purified for public supply is lost in leaks before it reaches the consumers. Most of this
wastage is lost from the distribution network, but over one-quarter is lost from
consumers' pipes and appliances.
Inter-basin transfer -
Communities usually develop where sufficient water is available but it may expand
and develop until the local supplies are inadequate. Water may be transferred from
other catchment areas via, canals, rivers and pipes.
More efficient use of water -
There are many ways of reducing the total amount of water that is used by using the
water more efficiently.
People are much more likely to be careful over how much water they use if they are
charged for the amount they use with a meter. Turing taps off sooner, repairing
dripping taps and showering instead of have a bath all help.
Low water-use appliances -
Other pages in this set
Here's a taster:
Washing machines and dishwashers are now designed to use less water and also have
small load settings.
Toilets have dual-flush designs so more water is only used if needed. Putting a brick or
`hippo bag' in the cistern reduces the water used for each flush.
Recycling: `grey water use' -
Water that have been used for bathing or washing clothes is not very dirty and is
suitable for low quality uses such as flushing toilets or watering plants.…read more