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Name _____Casey Hindon________








OCR Gateway GCSE Science


B2: Understanding our environment



































Ecology in our school grounds

What are ecosystems


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Everything that affects an organism is part of its ecosystem. It is a natural unit consisting of all
plants, animals and microorganisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of
the nonliving physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. An ecosystem is therefore a
collection of living things and…

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A human would be crushed, if not in an expensive submarine, to see these animals at such
depths!

Question: There are still new species to discover in the world. Where would you expect to
see these new species?
These new species would probably be found in illusive places such as…

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Question: Describe how you would control an ecosystem such as a greenhouse. Include
ways you could control both living and nonliving factors.
You could control an ecosystem such as a greenhouse by using different
animals/organisms to take different roles within the ecosystem. You could also
implement the use of pesticides/herbicides…

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To find out what types of plant are growing in a particular area, a square frame called a
quadrat can be used. This consists of 100 metalrimmed squares. The quadrats are thrown
over ones shoulder and the number of each type of plant in each square counted.







Question: This quadrat…

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They are then released and the traps are set again a few days later.

To estimate a population the following formula is used:


Number of animals caught first time x Number of animals caught second time

Number of marked animals caught second time


= Population

This can only be an…

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(10 x 10) as shown below:







This is a quadrat placed at D9. The percentage cover of each type of plant can be found in
this quadrat. If one type of plant is present in one square we would call this one percent
(1%).







The quadrat can be placed at…

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Question: Describe how the use of numbers and coordinates can be used to place quadrats
in a random way.
Coordinates will allow you to chose a random area without knowing the predicted
population whilst you are looking at the area.

Question: Suggest why it is important to place quadrats in…

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Invertebrates

There are more than one million invertebrates. Insects make up the majority of
invertebrates. To classify an animal as an insect an animal must have six legs and a body
divided into three parts: the head, thorax and abdomen.

Question: Describe three characteristics of plants.
Plants have a cell…

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Note: for the exam, there is no need to learn the above structure.




Reptile or bird

th
In the mid19 century a fossil was found showing an animal with a jaw like a reptile and
feathers of a bird. It was called Archaeopteryx.

This creature is thought to represent the…

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