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Everything that affects an organism is part of its ecosystem. It is a natural unit consisting of all
plants, animals and microorganisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of
the nonliving physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. An ecosystem is therefore a
collection of living things and their environment.…read more

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A human would be crushed, if not in an expensive submarine, to see these animals at such
Question: There are still new species to discover in the world. Where would you expect to
see these new species?
These new species would probably be found in illusive places such as the depths of the
oceans or deep in rainforests.
Question: Give two reasons why it is difficult to find animals at the bottom of the ocean.…read more

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Question: Describe how you would control an ecosystem such as a greenhouse. Include
ways you could control both living and nonliving factors.
You could control an ecosystem such as a greenhouse by using different
animals/organisms to take different roles within the ecosystem. You could also
implement the use of pesticides/herbicides to kill unneeded organisms.
Collecting living things
If you want to catch small animals you need to use Pooters, Nets and Pitfall traps
Consider the following animals.…read more

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To find out what types of plant are growing in a particular area, a square frame called a
quadrat can be used. This consists of 100 metalrimmed squares. The quadrats are thrown
over ones shoulder and the number of each type of plant in each square counted.
Question: This quadrat is exactly one square metre in area. If the plants in this quadrat are
representative of the plants in a field which is 20 000 square metres, calculate the population
of yellow buttercups.…read more

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This is a quadrat placed at D9. The percentage cover of each type of plant can be found in
this quadrat. If one type of plant is present in one square we would call this one percent
The quadrat can be placed at maybe 10 different coordinates and an average percentage
cover calculated for each type of plant. The larger the sample size, the more representative
is the percentage cover that is calculated.…read more

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Question: Describe how the use of numbers and coordinates can be used to place quadrats
in a random way.
Coordinates will allow you to chose a random area without knowing the predicted
population whilst you are looking at the area.
Question: Suggest why it is important to place quadrats in a random way rather than
choose an area.…read more

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There are more than one million invertebrates. Insects make up the majority of
invertebrates. To classify an animal as an insect an animal must have six legs and a body
divided into three parts: the head, thorax and abdomen.
Question: Describe three characteristics of plants.
Plants have a cell wall and membrane, they make their own food and they can
Question: Describe three characteristics of animals.
Animals have only a cell wall they cannot make their own food and can reproduce.…read more

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Note: for the exam, there is no need to learn the above structure.
Reptile or bird
In the mid19 century a fossil was found showing an animal with a jaw like a reptile and
feathers of a bird. It was called Archaeopteryx.
This creature is thought to represent the evolutionary link between reptiles and birds.
Possible words: evolutionary, fossil, Archaeopteryx, plants, animals, protoctista
Question: Discuss the problems of classification of organisms such as Euglena.…read more


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