Fitness and Health
Fitness is someones ability to do physical activity
We can measure fitness on these terms:
- Cardiovascular health
Health is being free from disease.
Ideal Blood Pressure: 120/80
120 is the systolic pressure, which is the pressure when the heart contracts.
80 is the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure when the heart relaxes.
Smoking causes increased blood pressure, because it contains carbon monoxde, which blocks red blood cells fgrom picking up oxygen by binding to the haemoglobin. It also contains nicotine, which increases the heart rate.
Saturated fat causes bad heart health because it increases the livers production of cholestoral, (which leads to thrombosis) this increases the blood pressure and the risk of heart disease.
Health and Diet
food nutrient Why do you need it where is it stored examples
Protein strength growth repair not stored beef/chicken
Carbohydrate energy liver/ muscles pasta
water hydration not stored water
Fibre helps heart/digestive s. not stored fruit, veg, wheat
vitamins prevents scurvy not stored oranges
Minerals prevents anemia not stored iron
fat energy, protect organs adipose tissue butter
Most fats are made up of triglycerides:
triglycerides = (glycerol + 3 fatty acids)
BMI: body mass index
Height x Height (m)
1st class protein is a protein made from the essential amino acids (found in proteins) that our body cannot make
2nd class protein is a protein made from non essential amino acids that our body can make.
Infectious and Non-Infectious diseases
- caused by - Not caused by parasites
micro-organisms - Could be a deficiency
- They live in the body - Irlens syndrome
- They feed off host - Asthma
Kwashiokor is a non-infefctious disease. It is a protein deficiency, often found in countries experiencing famine and natural disasters.
Fungi: Athletes foot
Immunity and Immunisation
Pathogens can be kept out by:
- stomache acid
Antigen chemicals are found on the surface of the pathogen. Each antigen has a different pathogen. mphocytes carry antibodies. When lymphocytes destroy pathogen, they use the antibodies they carry. They engulf the pathogens and release enzimes to kill them.
white blood cells
Pathogens enter the body. This causes a message to be sent to the brain. When this message is recieved, Lymphocytes are relaeased. When the pathogen and Lymphocytes meet, they come together. the Lymphocytes engulf the pathogens and release enzimes to kill them. Once this process is complete, all of the immunised pathogen are put together by the lymphocytes. This is when the phagocytes are released. The phagocytes ingest the pathogens.
active immunity is when your body makes its own antibodies. Passive immunity is when your body does not make its own antibodies.
Iris: can change the size to…