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OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL

MARXISM HEGEMONIC PLURALISM
MARXISM
KEY IDEAS / The media help to Similar to the The media are seen
CONCEPTS maintain the unfair traditional Marxist as offering a wide
and exploitative view in that it selection of the
capitalist system by believes that the views of…

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Mass Media




brainwashing the media provide the groups in society.
public. Media owners public with They have the
are rich and ideological views and freedom of choice, if
successful people information that they did not like the
who benefit supports the output of the media
considerably from capitalist system. they…

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Mass Media




Media conglomerate ­ organisation that owns large numbers of companies in various
mass media such as television, radio, publishing and film.

Vertical integration ­ when a media company controls every stage of media production,
e.g. it makes and broadcasts TV programmes

Synergy ­ integration of different media forms…

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Mass Media




Digital technology has enabled the convergence of separate communications
technology, allowing companies to diversity into a much wider range of products and
marks. The merger of Time Warner and AOL is an example of this, by merging with
AOL, Time Warner gained the crucial internet link to help…

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Mass Media




but they do not see this as primarily the result of actions taken by media owners. Louis
Althusser, for example, argues that the mass media are part of the ideological state
apparatus. They use the term legitimation to describe the process by which the ideology
of the ruling…

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Mass Media




Mass culture ­ contemporary culture as the production of capitalism mass production
and the mass media

Popular culture ­ the view that contemporary culture is the product of interaction
between mass culture and other cultural forms such as high culture and folk culture

Globalisation ­ increased world interconnectedness…

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Mass Media




TV has also produced a range of inspiring and educational dramas and factual
programmes.

The internet and related technologies have enabled people to produce their own culture
in the form of blogs, websites and films.

Mass culture theorists see today's culture as very much the product of big…

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Mass Media




The theory of cultural imperialism argues that the global economic system is dominated
by transnational companies that are based in the rich capitalist countries of the world.

Sawen estimates that the richest 200 capitalist corporations control half of all world
economic activity. Not only are they the richest…

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NEWS AND CURRENT AFFAIRS

News and current affairs key words
Dumbing down ­ the idea that news has become more populist and more sensational,
less intelligent and less informative

Narrative ­ the idea that news stories have a beginning, middle and an end, journalists
and editors try to…

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Mass Media





Human interest ­ they may be stories of personal tragedy, survival against the
odds and human relationships

Personalities ­ Important people and celebrities. The sex, drugs and violence
stories of celebrities such as Amy Winehouse, Kate Moss and Britney Spears
make excellent news copy.

Sensationalism ­ Extraordinary stories…

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