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ALBEDO = Albedo is the part of solar energy reflected from the Earth back
into space. Ice, especially with snow on top of it, has a high albedo: most
sunlight (90%) hitting the surface bounces back towards space.

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Impact of climate on the ecosystem

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Glaciers

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Mass balance = is the difference between the amount of snow and
ice accumulation on the glacier and the amount of snow and ice
ablation (melting and sublimation) lost from the glacier.

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Permafrost
Permafrost is when soil temp remains below Freezing for 2 or more years

Permafrost occurs

Active layer ­ soil melts, very wet
Permafrost ­ frozen soil
Talik ­ unfrozen, heated by earth
Continuous ­ unbroken layer, across landscape
Discontinuous ­ scattered pockets of frozen ground
Sporadic ­ small islands…

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Glacial Erosion Diagram


Corrie cwm or cirque
Corries are armchair shaped hollows which have
steep back walls with an over deepened basin and a
rock lip. The glacial ice sticks to the rock on the back
wall, as the ice moves due to meltwater and gravity
it plucks rock away…

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Glacial Deposition Diagram
Drumlin
A drumlin is an elongated hill in the shape of a
half-buried egg. They were formed when the ice
became overloaded with sediment. When the ability of
the glacier was reduced, material was deposited, in the
same way that a river overloaded with sediment
deposits the…

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Moraines
Moraine ­ This is the material produced by glacial erosion. The material tends to be unsorted (it
contains really huge boulders and at the same time a fine powder called glacial flour). It also tends to
be very angular, as the processes that form the material involve freezing and…

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Meltwater is abundant in warm-based glaciers and the term 'Fluvioglacial' is used to describe
the processes and effects of this meltwater.
Landforms are created by the meltwater from glaciers, largely through deposition but also
by erosion
Discharge (predominantly in summer months) occurs through supraglacial and subglacial
streams at the base…

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Fluvio-glacial Deposition Diagram
Outwash Plains (Sandur)
Comprised of gravels, sands and clays deposited
by meltwater streams. The plains tend to sort the
sediment so that coarser material, like sand, is
closer to the snout, and finer clay is furthest away.
(Outwash material may also be deposited on top
of till…

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