AQA Geog - Full detailed Notes on Population

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  • Created on: 27-11-12 07:49
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POPULATION
Historical reasons for population growth:
1. Development of crop growing
2. The invention of metal tools
3. Advances in plant breeding and cross-breeding of animals
4. Inventions in machinery
5. Advances in medicine and hygiene
6. Developments in the preservation and storage of food
a) The Industrial Revolution
b) The agricultural revolution (breeding of plants & animals, mechanisation of
agriculture, scientific use of fertilsers, improved transport & marketing)
c) Better understanding of hygiene & spread of disease
d) Improved transport & navigation ­ enhance world trade & spread of
technologies
FACTORS OF POPULATION CHANGE
There are 3 major factors that contribute to population change
1. FERTILITY
2. MORTALITY
3. MIGRATION
(3. NOT `natural' population change BUT can indirectly influence natural increase or
decrease and of course population size/numbers through immigration and emigration)
FERTILITY ­ the reproductive level of a population
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) ­ most common measure of fertility. It gives an overall picture of
the number of births per 1000 population in a year
CBR = total number of births x 1000
Total population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) ­ Average number of children a woman will give birth to in her
lifetime. A TFR of over 2 means the popn is expanding; TFR below 2 the popn is
contracting (getting smaller)
This varies hugely across the globe & is linked to levels of development
Eg. UK 1.7 Singapore 1.4 children, Sierra Leone 6.5
Replacement Level fertility (RLF) ­ level at which each generation of women has only
enough daughters to replace themselves in the population.
Normal figure given for replacement level - 2.12 children
Since 1995 there has been a steady decline in RLF across the world

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Actual & Desired Fertility rates ­
Actual (what happens) desired (how many a woman would ideally want)
E.g. Italy: Desired 2.1 Actual 1.65 Austria Desired 2.0 Actual 1.69
MORTALITY
Mortality is the ratio of deaths to the population of a given area. Mortality is often
measured using such indices as crude death rates, infant mortality rates or life
expectancy.…read more

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The difference between crude birth rates and crude death rates represents the rate at
which the population either increases/decreases.
This is natural population change and does not take into account migration!
With a CBR of 41 per 1000 (4.1%) & a CDR of 13 per 1000 (1.3%) as Nigeria had in
2002. The annual popn. growth rate is calculated as:
4.1% - 1.3% = annual growth rate of 2.8%
Rates of population increase can be deceptive in that % seem unimpressive E.g.…read more

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Birthrate: 1.6
Germany
Family benefits: 14 weeks maternity leave plus parental leave up to 36 months;
monthly child benefit for three children is 430.50 (£290)
Employment rate of women: aged 25-54
No children 77.3%; one child 70.4%; two children 56.3%
Birthrate: 1.5
Portugal
Family benefits: six month maternity leave; monthly child benefit is dependent on
earnings.
Employment rate of women aged 25-54
No children 72.6%; one child 78.5%; two children 70.3%
Fertility rate: 1.…read more

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FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY RATES
Demographic factors
Remember 50% of the population biologically incapable of having children (ie
men), so maximum BR can only be 500 per 1000 Furthermore, only women
fertile (menstruating) can have children ­ UK 60% of female popn, thus
reducing ratio to 300 per 1000.…read more

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Children are either an economic asset or economic burden ­ LEDC/MEDC
(Producers/consumers) Children as young as 5 in LEDCs will be producers,
helping out with farming, fuel/water gathering
MEDC ­ people choose luxuries and disposable income over children!
Pensions availability in LEDCs ­ piety / `bride price' in Nigeria ­ deceased
husband, wife no claims or rights to land or possessions. Reliant on sons to look
after in old age.…read more

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Hindu culture ­ tradition for girls to marry at 16 & start family immediately.
Greater potential to produce 5/6 children +
Cultures where women have few rights (Afghanistan & Pakistan) higher BR ­
restricted from leaving the home, unable to access family planning, advice etc.…read more

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It might be expected that LEDCs would have high death rates and MEDCs low ones, but this is
rarely true. LEDCs, with their young populations, have surprisingly low death rates, whilst
MEDCs, with much higher average ages, show higher death rates.
Heart and circulatory disease (heart attacks and strokes) and lung diseases
(pneumonia and bronchitis) are the leading causes of death in both LEDCs and
MEDCs, responsible for around onethird of all deaths each year.…read more

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In MEDCs, only 23% of the deaths are due to communicable (i.e. infectious)
diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB, whereas in LEDCs therse account for
55%. These illnesses can be treated or prevented with medicine, immunisation
schemes, etc and are controlled or have been wiped out by such measures in the
MEDCs. However, lack of finance and poor medical facilities means that they are
still widespread causes of death in many LEDCs.…read more

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Japan) and the LEDCs (as low as 40 in Swaziland).
However, there are some exceptions to this generalisation.
· Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, have very high GNP per capita but don't
have the highest life expectancies (75), and there are countries like China that
have much lower GNPs per capita yet have high life expectancies (73).
· Women almost always have higher life expectancies than men in both groups
of countries. Currently, the worldwide average life expectancy for all people
is 64.…read more

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