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Historical reasons for population growth:
1. Development of crop growing
2. The invention of metal tools
3. Advances in plant breeding and cross-breeding of animals
4. Inventions in machinery
5. Advances in medicine and hygiene
6. Developments in the preservation and storage of food

a) The Industrial Revolution

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Actual & Desired Fertility rates ­
Actual (what happens) desired (how many a woman would ideally want)
E.g. Italy: Desired 2.1 Actual 1.65 Austria Desired 2.0 Actual 1.69


Mortality is the ratio of deaths to the population of a given area. Mortality is often
measured using such indices as…

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The difference between crude birth rates and crude death rates represents the rate at
which the population either increases/decreases.
This is natural population change and does not take into account migration!

With a CBR of 41 per 1000 (4.1%) & a CDR of 13 per 1000 (1.3%) as Nigeria had…

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Birthrate: 1.6

Family benefits: 14 weeks maternity leave plus parental leave up to 36 months;
monthly child benefit for three children is 430.50 (£290)
Employment rate of women: aged 25-54
No children 77.3%; one child 70.4%; two children 56.3%
Birthrate: 1.5

Family benefits: six month maternity leave; monthly…

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Demographic factors
Remember 50% of the population biologically incapable of having children (ie
men), so maximum BR can only be 500 per 1000 Furthermore, only women
fertile (menstruating) can have children ­ UK 60% of female popn, thus
reducing ratio to 300 per 1000. Possibly 10%…

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· Children are either an economic asset or economic burden ­ LEDC/MEDC
(Producers/consumers) Children as young as 5 in LEDCs will be producers,
helping out with farming, fuel/water gathering
MEDC ­ people choose luxuries and disposable income over children!
Pensions availability in LEDCs ­ piety / `bride price' in Nigeria…

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Hindu culture ­ tradition for girls to marry at 16 & start family immediately.
Greater potential to produce 5/6 children +
Cultures where women have few rights (Afghanistan & Pakistan) higher BR ­
restricted from leaving the home, unable to access family planning, advice etc.

Government Incentives
Anti natal policy…

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It might be expected that LEDCs would have high death rates and MEDCs low ones, but this is
rarely true. LEDCs, with their young populations, have surprisingly low death rates, whilst
MEDCs, with much higher average ages, show higher death rates.

Heart and circulatory disease (heart attacks and strokes) and…

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In MEDCs, only 23% of the deaths are due to communicable (i.e. infectious)
diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB, whereas in LEDCs therse account for
55%. These illnesses can be treated or prevented with medicine, immunisation
schemes, etc and are controlled or have been wiped out by such measures…

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Japan) and the LEDCs (as low as 40 in Swaziland).

However, there are some exceptions to this generalisation.

· Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, have very high GNP per capita but don't
have the highest life expectancies (75), and there are countries like China that
have much lower GNPs per…


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