Cognitive Psychology Revision Unit 1

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  • Created on: 28-12-12 22:58
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Multi-Store Model ­ Atkinson and Shiffrin
· Three separate stores.
· Each store has a different capacity, duration and encoding.
· Information must be paid attention to and rehearsed in order to move it from the short-term
store into the long term store.
· This is done through elaborate rehearsal
· Maintenance rehearsal keeps the information in the STM storey for 18-30s.
· Information is lost through decay if rehearsal does not happen.
· Information in the LTM can be displaced but never decays unless damage to the hippocampus
+ Supported by Miller (1956), Conrad (1964), Bahrick (1975), Baddeley (1966), Peterson and
Peterson (1969) and the case studies of HM and Clive Wearing (both of which indicate separate
stores for different memories as opposed to one general store for both STM and LTM).
+ Brain scanning techniques have shown different areas of the brain are activated in STM and LTM
­ Too simple to fully represent the way our memory works.
­ We do not always need to rehearse the information for it to be transferred from our STM and
then LTM stores.
Working Memory Model ­ Baddeley and Hitch
· Shows STM as having many different components
· Central Executive ­ controls the slave systems, modality free and has a very limited capacity
· The phonological loop ­ divided into the phonological store (spoken info) and the articulatory
loop (inner voice).
· Visuo-spatial sketchpad ­ inner eye and allows us to view images in our head.
· Episodic buffer ­ inner television which projects from the stores.

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+ Greater depth than the MSM
+ Explains how we can do more than one task simultaneously.
+ Farah et al ­ LH (had been in a car accident) performed better on spatial tasks than those
involving words.
+ Baddeley et al who found we can do more than one task at the same time
­ Central executive is poorly research and difficult to provide evidence for.
­ Berz found the model fails to account for musical memory.…read more

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Yarmey ­ showed young and older adults a film of a staged event and then asked questions.
Found that 80% of older adults and 20% of the younger adults failed to mention the key detail.
+ Tells us we should be careful when examining anyone's EWT but particularly very young or old
+ Much research has been conducted in artificial situations which have high internal validity with
high reliability.
­ Low ecological validity occurs from artificial situations.…read more

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Context Reinstatement (CR)
o Report Everything (RE)
o Changed Perspective (CP)
o Reverse Order (RO)
· Fisher et al went on to create the enhanced cognitive technique which included some addition
· Geiselman ­ showed video of simulated crime and found that the CIT prompted the most
· Fisher ­ trained real detectives to use enhanced CIT and found it increased the amount of recall
hugely in comparison to the standard interview.…read more


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