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Conventional breeding techniques are...
o Laborious
o Unpredictable
o Time consuming
CLONE= an asexually produced, genetically identical line of cells or organisms
Natural cloning occurs in
o Bacteria
o Yeast
o Plants such as corms, suckers and bulbs

Embryo cloning

Genetically identical offspring
Helps farmers increase numbers of animals…

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Tissue culture

Cells from young animals and cancer cells can be induced to grow in vitro
A few cells keep ability to divide even in adulthood e.g.
o New cells to heal wounds/replace worn out skin cells
o New blood cells
o New cells to replace worn out cells in…

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Last 25 years has seen an increase in couples seeking help to conceive
Infertile couple= failed to conceive after 12 months
Before treatment couples are assessed to discover cause of problem
o 50% problems with female reproductive system
o 35% related to male
o Rest cause unknown (60% of…

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Cloning of plants
Cells taken from stock plants with desirable characteristics (commercial value)
Costeffective and is better than conventional methods as large numbers of plants can be
transported at an early stage of growth and so take up little space
Based on ability of differentiated plant cell to give…


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