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APPLICATION
Allow farmers to produce high genetic quality stock which are genetically identical for
example cows with high milk yield.
Preserve rare breeds
Genetically identical transgenic animals
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CELL CLONING
Advantages Disadvantages
High value animals can be cloned to High value animals are not produced
produce large numbers of genetically with the welfare of the animal in mind ­
identical meat producing chickens which can't
Rare animals can be cloned to walk.…read more

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NONREPRODUCTIVE (THERAPEUTIC) CELL CLONING
ADVANTAGES
There will be no rejection as the cells are not foreign to the body.
Could reduce the problems centred around waiting for donor organs to become available
for transplant
Can be used to make any cell as totipotent
Cloned cell use is likely to be less dangerous than that of a major operation e.g.…read more

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Placed in the patient's body
Several successes with the technique (GOSH, France) however the trails
have had to be stopped due to patients later developing cancer.
STEM CELLS
Are undifferentiated cells which are able to divide and specialise. There are two broad types of
stem cells:
Embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. The
embryos are usually extras that have been created in IVF (in vitro fertilization) clinics
where several eggs are fertilized in a test tube.…read more

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INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS (iPS CELLS)
These are cells which are can be described as a type of pluripotent stem cell artificially derived
from a nonpluripotent cell typically an adult somatic cell by inducing a "forced" expression of
specific gene. These cells are almost identical to embryonic stem cells. If this is safely
developed from an individual's own skin cells which therefore allows the production of 200+
different cells then the nuclear transfer technique could be replaced which would mean less
controversy.…read more

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