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ADULT CELL CLONING
REPRODUCTIVE CELL CLONING

SPLITTING EMBRYO

Cells from a developing embryo can be separated of each of them going on to produce a
genetically identical organism. Process has been used to clone a variety of organisms including
sheep, cattle, rabbits and toads.

















APPLICATION

Improvement of a group of…

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APPLICATION

Allow farmers to produce high genetic quality stock which are genetically identical for
example cows with high milk yield.
Preserve rare breeds
Genetically identical transgenic animals

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CELL CLONING

Advantages Disadvantages
High value animals can be cloned to High value animals are not produced
produce large…

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NONREPRODUCTIVE (THERAPEUTIC) CELL CLONING

ADVANTAGES

There will be no rejection as the cells are not foreign to the body.
Could reduce the problems centred around waiting for donor organs to become available
for transplant
Can be used to make any cell as totipotent
Cloned cell use is likely to be…

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o Placed in the patient's body
Several successes with the technique (GOSH, France) however the trails
have had to be stopped due to patients later developing cancer.

STEM CELLS

Are undifferentiated cells which are able to divide and specialise. There are two broad types of
stem cells:

Embryonic stem cells,…

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INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS (iPS CELLS)

These are cells which are can be described as a type of pluripotent stem cell artificially derived
from a nonpluripotent cell typically an adult somatic cell by inducing a "forced" expression of
specific gene. These cells are almost identical to embryonic stem cells. If…

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