BY5.6 Cloning

HideShow resource information


  • asexual reproduction leads to genetically identical offspring
  • can occur naturally in bacteria, yeast and plants grown from suckers, bulbs and corms
  • artifical clones from animals produced by seperating embryos ar an early stage
  • artifical clones from plants by taking cuttings and micropropagation

Embryo cloning

  • makes it possible for farmers to increase the numbers of their animals
  • eggs (from high milk yielding cows) fertilised in a dish by sperm from the best bulls through IVF
  • fertilised egg divides to from a ball of cells
  • the ball of cells 9young emrbyo) is split into separate cells
  • each cell develops into a new embryo, genetically identical to the first
  • embryos transplanted into surrogates
  • technique conserves rare breeds

Cloning by nuclear transplant

  • allows clones to be produced from one individual
  • cells are taken from a donor and cultured in a medium to stop division
  • infertilised egg removed from recipient and nucleus removed
  • donor and recipient cells are fused together and allowed to divide, producing a ball of cells
  • the developing embryo is transplanted into the womb of the surrogate
  • the offspring is identical to the original donor
  • technique allows for desirable qualities to be preserved for future generations

Advantages and disadvantages of animal cloning


  • cell culture is useful for the production of cells in large quantities e.g. cancer cells for medical research, monoclonal antibodies
  • maintains genetic stock


  • in mammals it is expensive and unreliable
  • may lead to the inadvertent selection of disadvantageous alleles
  • progency may show unforseen effects e.g. premature aging

Tissue culture:

  • technique used for growing cels in a lab
  • medium that the cells are grown in are tightly controlled and conditions (e.g. water potential and temperature) are controlled fro
  • used for medical and research purposes (e.g. vaccinations)

Tissue engineering

  • inducing living cells to grow on a synthetic framework to produce tissue
    • replacing skin on deep burns
    • blood vessel replacement
    • bone and cartillage repair
  • uses sem cells: undifferentiated cells capable of dividing to give rise to cells which can develop into different specialised cels
  • have the abilty to form all…


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Practical applications of biology resources »