Class notes on suicide and theories

Hello :) I wrote up some class notes on suicide and the different theories. 1 of My teacher's is a bit behind the work so I have not completed all the notes. But i hope it is still useful.

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Class notes on Sociology Unit 4: Crime and Deviance
Who- Durkheim (functionalist, positivist, value consensus, social solidarity)
What- prove sociology is scientific (valid)
When- 19th century
Where- France
Durkheim- scientist (social science)
Believed he could show that suicide has social patterns/causes- used official
statistics, in Europe, 19th century
Social facts
Who: Steven Lukes
What: Social facts (external to individuals, part of society, greater than individuals)
Moral regulation: actions kept in check by norms and values> Durkheim: Individuals desires
are incapable of satisfaction
Typical of industrial society

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Assess the usefulness of quantitative and qualitative sources of studying suicide (essay plan)
Qualitative Quantitative
Expressed in numbers eg stats expressed in words, opinions
Supported by positivists supported by interpretivits
Durkheim study of suicide Douglas study of suicide notes
Taylor supports Durkheim Study by jacobs
Atkinson (argue that official stats
Reflects decisions)
P1- Def of quantitative +qualitative
P2- Quantitative supported by.... (include case study)
P3- Ad/disadvantages of case study
P4- Qualitative (supported by...…read more

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Who: Taylor
When: 20th century
What: Argues that suicide statistics cant be valid. Realist approach: between positivists
and interpretivists.…read more

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Crime and deviance answers (from Napier textbook on unit 4)
The three characteristics of a social fact are: external to the individual, they constrain
individuals, shaping their behaviour; they are greater than individuals- they exist on a different
level from the individual
Modern industrial societies have low levels of integration because individuals rights and
freedom has become more important than obligations towards others.…read more

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Functionist theory…read more

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To achieve social soilidarity: sociolisation: shared culture, social control, rewards for
conformity and punishments for deviance.
Deviance and crime is found in all societies: no everyone is socialised into norms and values.
Diversity of lifestyles and values. Different groups develop their own subcultures.
Positive functions of crime: Boundary maintainance: Purpose of punishment to reaffirm
societies shared values. Adaptation and change: change is due to act of deviance long run
values will arise
the theory doesn't explain that society doesn't create crime.…read more

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What: Deviance of gangs not necessarily related to economic gain. Stated that deviant acts
such as vandalism and robbery could be understood in terms of the frustration felt by gang
members about their status in society.
When: 1996/1955
Evaluation: Structuralist approach and deterministic
Many working class parents do value education
Teachers sterotype the working class boys as failures
Who: Cloward and Ohlin
What: Different forms of deviance> criminal subculture: learning craft of robbery and other
types of stealing. Conflict and retreatistism subculture.…read more

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Subterranean values (David Matza) Values that are hidden underneath mainstream societies
Anomie- (Durkheim/merton) Different social expectations of behaviour by delinquents
Subcultural theory
4 characteristics of crime: functional, universal, relative and inevitable (FURI)
Crime can be functional because it strengthens the bond between people and reminds
people of the boundaries of acceptable behaviour.
*Miller- W/C American boys get in trouble because they have different values.
Focal concerns: Trouble, toughness (real men fight) and excitement (TETS)
US Gangs: ethnically divided, establish ways of identifying themselves i.e.…read more

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Integration of individuals: Basic function of value consensus to make social order possible,
The system has to ensure that people's material needs are met. *Parsons 2 mechanisms
that individuals conform to shared norms. Socialisation> needs are met by teaching
individuals what to do and what is requires them to do.…read more


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