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Summaries of Crime and Deviance
Charlotte Gough













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Theories

Functionalism and Crime

Durkheim ­ Three Functions

Reaffirms norms and values through degrading ceremonies such as going to court and community service.
Reinforces social solidarity through unity.
Safety Net ­ Crime acts as a safety net so that it does not affect other institutions.

Merton and the American Dream…

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All the studies are gender biased and class biased ­ working class boys are used and it cannot be applied to
any other classes and it cannot be applied to females.
Miller's theory is outdated ­ There are now gadgets that make us more excited and tough E.G Grand Theft…

Page 4

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Left Realism is focused on the victims of crime, Too much emphasis on street crime ­ it doesn't
theory is balanced, promotes debate on street explain other crimes and causes. Similarly,
crime, explains why people choose to commit subcultural theory talks about gang crime.
crime mainly because of relative deprivation.…

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Explanations

Education ­ Afro Caribbeans' leave with few qualifications. Effects confidence and the ability to carry on with life.
(Supported by Subcultural Theory)
Family ­ Single Parent Families ­ 60% of black children live with single parents ­ lack of models and money.
Media ­ Rap music emphasis on sex…

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Globalisation and Crime

Globalisation refers to how the world is interconnected. Developments of globalisation include transport,
technology etc.
The crimes that have developed because of globalisation are known as Transnational Crimes. These include drug
smuggling, human trafficking, cybercrime, terrorism, kidnapping and money laundering.
Why has globalisation led to more crime?…

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Iraq War Supports This ­ 9/11, Nuclear Weapons, Appealing To Higher Loyalty.

Crime Prevention and Punishment

Structural

Merton and Subcultural Theory ­ Remove barriers preventing equal opportunity. However, Merton says that
people turn to innovation whereas subcultural theorists say that a subculture is created such as gangs.
Marxists ­ Classless…

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The Media and Crime

Patterns

Coverage of violent and sexual crime is high
Media reports incidents not causes
CJS is positive because of white middle class.

Explanations

News Values ­ Novelty, Titillation, Personalities.
Police and Courts Sell Stories to the Media.

Does the media create fear?

Cohen (1972) ­ Folk…

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Critics argue that part of his theory cannot be measured. He can't say how he measures integration.
Douglas argues that societies don't share the same meaning of suicide, if people are highly integrated then
suicide is more likely to be covered up.
Atkinson argues that suicide stats are socially constructed…

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