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Theories
Functionalism and Crime
Durkheim ­ Three Functions
Reaffirms norms and values through degrading ceremonies such as going to court and community service.
Reinforces social solidarity through unity.
Safety Net ­ Crime acts as a safety net so that it does not affect other institutions.
Merton and the American Dream
Five responses to the American Dream
Conformity ­ Accepting goals.
Innovation ­ Accepting money success but use crime to achieve it.
Ritualism ­ Giving up but still having internalised meanings.
Retreatism ­ Rejection, dropping out.…read more

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All the studies are gender biased and class biased ­ working class boys are used and it cannot be applied to
any other classes and it cannot be applied to females.
Miller's theory is outdated ­ There are now gadgets that make us more excited and tough E.G Grand Theft Auto
­ You can get a thrill from this.
Miller may explain crime that is nonutilitarian as he only mentions the toughness and excitement of looking for
crime.…read more

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Left Realism is focused on the victims of crime, Too much emphasis on street crime ­ it doesn't
theory is balanced, promotes debate on street explain other crimes and causes. Similarly,
crime, explains why people choose to commit subcultural theory talks about gang crime.
crime mainly because of relative deprivation. Other theories have failed to provide solutions to
Similar to the Merton ­ Subcultural theory applied crime such as Merton and Durkheim.
to "Black Men". Nothing new is mentioned. Ignores Causes such as Poverty.…read more

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Explanations
Education ­ Afro Caribbeans' leave with few qualifications. Effects confidence and the ability to carry on with life.
(Supported by Subcultural Theory)
Family ­ Single Parent Families ­ 60% of black children live with single parents ­ lack of models and money.
Media ­ Rap music emphasis on sex and drugs for example.
Stop and Search ­ Ethnic Minorities Stopped because of young black men going out at night. (Interactionism)
Biased Legal System ­ Young black men were more of criminals than white.…read more

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Globalisation and Crime
Globalisation refers to how the world is interconnected. Developments of globalisation include transport,
technology etc.
The crimes that have developed because of globalisation are known as Transnational Crimes. These include drug
smuggling, human trafficking, cybercrime, terrorism, kidnapping and money laundering.
Why has globalisation led to more crime?
Taylor (1997) argues that there is no security in jobs and therefore there is a recession and people are
immigrating.
Countries are becoming more interdependent on each other. This has resulted in transnational companies.…read more

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Iraq War Supports This ­ 9/11, Nuclear Weapons, Appealing To Higher Loyalty.
Crime Prevention and Punishment
Structural
Merton and Subcultural Theory ­ Remove barriers preventing equal opportunity. However, Merton says that
people turn to innovation whereas subcultural theorists say that a subculture is created such as gangs.
Marxists ­ Classless society, communism, no exploitation.
Left Realists ­ Local authority to work with departments and accountable police force, alternatives to prison.…read more

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The Media and Crime
Patterns
Coverage of violent and sexual crime is high
Media reports incidents not causes
CJS is positive because of white middle class.
Explanations
News Values ­ Novelty, Titillation, Personalities.
Police and Courts Sell Stories to the Media.
Does the media create fear?
Cohen (1972) ­ Folk Devils and Moral Panics
Cohen examines the media's response to mods and rockers.
It wasn't clear which the group the teenagers belonged to. The Media created concern and exaggeration.…read more

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Critics argue that part of his theory cannot be measured. He can't say how he measures integration.
Douglas argues that societies don't share the same meaning of suicide, if people are highly integrated then
suicide is more likely to be covered up.
Atkinson argues that suicide stats are socially constructed they're the end product of a complex set of
interactions and interpretations. Stats focus on the role of the coroner and argue that a suicide is death that is
so labelled by a coroner.…read more

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