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  • Created on: 13-05-12 21:37
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Chapter 1: a changing& diverse society
Rights and responsibilities for all
Human rights:
Applies to everyone.
In universal declaration of human rights.
Moral rights:
Values or conscience.
Civil or political rights:
Freedom of speech.
Freedom to vote.
Freedom from discrimination
Responsibilities are not always based on laws.
Rights cannot be separated from responsibilities.
Human rights may not be applied until they have been built into a country's
Legal rights can be enforced in the courts but often carry obligations.
Conscience & values are at the heart of moral rights and responsibilities.
Political or civil rights include freedom of speech, the right to vote & the
guarantee of equality.
Freedom to...& freedom from...

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Freedoms come from:
Common laws.
International statements.
Once it is agreed that everyone has the rights that should be protected, ideas like
democracy, justice, tolerance & respect can be used to support everyone. That is
what an equal society is all about.
If people do not have freedom from illness, poverty, or ignorance they will
find it difficult to enjoy freedom to do & achieve things.…read more

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Migration to London:
Push factors: negative, makes a person leave their country for reasons such
as fear of persecution.
Pull factors: positive, when someone is attracted to a country.
London is a multicultural city where people from many ethnic groups live
harmoniously, typical off many cities in the UK.
The Eat End is an area of contrasts with both poverty and wealth.…read more

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Chapter 2: consumption and employment
Shopping around
Current laws What they say This means...
Consumer Credit If you use a credit card to buy faulty goods or will get compensation if the holiday or pc you
Acts 1974-2006 a service which provides less than it promises, buy doesn't work out.
it may be possible to claim from the credit card
Consumer It is always illegal to sell unsafe goods. If you ...…read more

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Working it out
In the 1940s and 50s, most people expected to have a job for life.
By 1970s 50% of workers belonged to a trade union to improve:
working conditions
And to try to get employment laws maid fairer.
When unemployment rose in the 1980s, trade union membership fell
New jobs were often offered short contracts so employees saw little point in
joining a union.
Strikes were less popular than before.…read more

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Trade union membership has fallen sharply.
Employees no longer seem to want a `job for life' and expect to change jobs.
Some individuals make a big difference e.g. Alan Sugar.
Many laws passed in the last 40 years have improved working conditions
for employees.
Chapter 3: where did our rights and freedoms come from?
The United Nations
To support the universal declaration:
A human rights council has been established to press for improvements
where human rights are denied.…read more

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Child morality and execution of
children for crimes committed
when under 16
Extreme poverty and hunger
Exploitation of migrant workers
The UN conventions were set up in 1990 and the UK joined in 1991.
Some countries were criticized including the UK.…read more

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Both the European court of justice (ECJ) & the European convention of
human rights (ECTHR) decisions overrule national courts.
ECTHR deals with more `individual' cases than ECJ but ECJ decisions do
affect the lives & rights of many people.
Provisions expressed in general terms allow judges to interpret cases to
keep decisions up-to-date.
1998 human rights act
From 2000, the human rights act (HRA) has made the rights from the ECHR
enforceable in our own courts, making it quicker and simple to use.…read more

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Russia 5
France 6
Ireland 7
Turkey 7.5
Australia 12
Uk 28
Fears that Britain is being turned into a `surveillance society' are said to be
unjustified because such monitoring helps to keep us safe.
Does religion divide or unite society?
Religions do not unite on some projects in the UK but often not all religions
are included.
Religion can cause deep division in society.
Tolerance is the avoidance of discrimination between groups on the
grounds of faith or belief.…read more


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