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CHEMISTRY UNIT 2

Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry 2.1.1

Organi
c Chemi
str
y:
the
study
of
compounds
cont
aini
ng
car
bon

Carbon
forms
four
coval
ent
bonds.
I
t
is
unique
because:
i
t
can f
orm si
ngl
e ,
doubl
e and
tr
ipl
e bonds…

Page 2

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Coval
ent
bond
fi
ssi
on

Het
erol
yti
c
fi
ssion:
f
ormi
ng a
cat
ion
and
an
ani
on
Homol
yti
c f
issi
on:
for
ming
two
radi
cal
s

Cur
ly
arr
ow :
shows
the moveme nt
of
an
elect
ron
pai
r,
showi…

Page 3

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Tr
ends
in
boi
li
ng
poi
nts
of
al
kanes

Boi
li
ng poi
nt
increases as
the
numb er
of
carbons
in
the
molecul
e i
ncreases
because
t
he st
rengt
h of
V an
der
Wa als
for
ces
between the
mo l
ecul
es i…

Page 4

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I
some r
isat
ion
Thi
s i
s conver
ti
ng
unbr
anched
alkanes
int
o br
anched
isomer
s.

Branched
alkanes
are
usef
ul
because
they
have
a higher octane number

A
zeol
it
e cat
alyst
i
s
used.

e.
g. hept
ane 2,
4 di
met…

Page 5

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Order
of
cont
ri
but
ion
to
greenhouse
eff
ect
: H2O > CO2 > CH4


Why each
bond absorbs
a speci
fi
c f
requency
of
IR r
adiat
ion:

each
type
of
bond absorbs
inf
rared
of
a par
ti
cular
f
requency
causi
ng t
he bonds…

Page 6

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Bi
ofuel
s can
be r
egar
ded as
carbon neutral
because t
he amount
of
CO2 used
in
phot
osynthesi
s
is
equal
t
o t
he amount
produ ced
w hen
it
bur
ns.

Subst
it
uti
on
React
i
o ns
of
Alkanes

Hal
ogenat
ion

Condi…

Page 7

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When excess
propane
is
react
ed
w i
th
chl
ori
ne i
n t
he pr
esence
of
U V
li
ght
,
two
monochl
oropropanes
are
p r
oduced
because
the
C l
can
att
ach
to
the
end
carbon
or
the
mi
ddle
carbon.



Fr
ee
radi…

Page 8

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Cycl
oal
kenes

These
have
two
hyd rogen
atoms
less
than
the
open
chai
n al
kene.

e.
g.
cycl
ohexene
C 6H10




Di
enes

These
have
two
doubl
e bonds.

e.
g.
buta1,
3 di
ene
C4H6




St
ereoi
somer
ism
in
alk
e nes

St
ereoi
somer
s:…

Page 9

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To
test
f
or
the
presence
of
an al
kene,
add br
omi
ne
w at
er
and
it
wi
ll
change
col
our
f
rom
or
ange t
o col
ourl
ess
if
an
alkene
is
present
.




1. Addi
ti
on
of
hal
ogens

Reagent
:
Br2 or…

Page 10

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or


propene
+ s
team
propan1ol
OR
propan2ol

used
to
make
ethanol
on
a l
arge
scal
e




5. Pol
ymer
isat
ion
of
alkenes

Pol
ymer
isat
ion
is
j
oini
ng
up
many
monomer
s t
o f
orm
one
big
mol
ecul
e.

Thi
s t
ype…

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