CHEMISTRY UNIT 2

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CHEMISTRY UNIT 2
Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry 2.1.1
Organi
c Chemi
str
y:
the
study
of
compounds
cont
aini
ng
car
bon
Carbon
forms
four
coval
ent
bonds.
I
t
is
unique
because:
i
t
can f
orm si
ngl
e ,
doubl
e and
tr
ipl
e bonds
i
t
can f
orm l
ong chai
ns and
ri
ngs
i
t
can f
orm bonds
w i
th
mo st
ot
her
non metal
s e.
g.
C H,
C N,
C O,
C Cl
I
some r
s:
comp ounds wi
th t
he
sa me molecul
ar
for
mu l
a but
di
ff
erent
str
u ct
ural
f
ormu l
ae
Funct
ional
gr
ou p:
an
atom or
group of
at
oms
which
gives
an
o r
ganic
co mpound
it
s
char
acter
ist
ic
react
ions
Homologous s
e r
ies:
a
famil
y of
compo unds
cont
aini
ng t
he same f
u nct
ional
gr
oup
a nd
t
he same general
f
ormu l
a (
each successi
ve
me mber
has an
extra
C H2)
Hydrocar
bons:
comp ounds
cont
aini
ng
carbon
and
hydr
ogen
onl
y
sat
urated
hydrocar
bons: al
kanes
unsat
u r
ated
hydrocar
bons: al
kenes
al
iphat
ic
hydrocar
bons: openchai
n
al
icycl
i
c hydr
ocarbons:
r
ing
str
uct
ure
Naming Comp ounds
e.
g.
H
CH 3
H
|
|
|
H ­
C
­ C ­ C ­ H
|
|
|
H
H
H
Emp i
ri
cal
formu l
a:
the
simpl
est
whol
e number
r
ati
o of
at
oms
of
each
element
pr
esent
in
a compound
Mol
ecul
ar
for
mul
a:
the
act
ual
number
of
at
oms
of
each
element
i
n a
mol
ecul
e
St
ruct
ural
f
ormula:
t
he mi
nimum amount
of
det
ail
r
equi
red
to
show
the
unambi
guous
ar
rangement
of
at
oms i
n a
molecul
e
Gener
al
for
mul
a:
the
si
mpl
est
al
gebr
aic
for
mul
a of
a
member
of
a
homol
ogous
ser
ies
Di
spl
ayed
for
mul
a:
the
rel
ati
ve
posi
ti
oni
ng
of
atoms
and
the
bonds
bet
w een
them
Skel
etal
f
ormul
a:
the
si
mp l
i
fi
ed or
gani
c f
ormula,
shown by
removi
ng
hydrogen at
oms
f
rom al
kyl
chai
ns,
l
eavi
ng j
ust
the
C
skel
eton
and
funct
ional
gr
oups

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Page 2

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Coval
ent
bond
fi
ssi
on
Het
erol
yti
c
fi
ssion:
f
ormi
ng a
cat
ion
and
an
ani
on
Homol
yti
c f
issi
on:
for
ming
two
radi
cal
s
Cur
ly
arr
ow :
shows
the moveme nt
of
an
elect
ron
pai
r,
showi
ng
eit
her
br
eaki
ng
or
f
orma t
ion
of
a coval
ent
bond
Alkanes 2.1.…read more

Page 3

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Tr
ends
in
boi
li
ng
poi
nts
of
al
kanes
Boi
li
ng poi
nt
increases as
the
numb er
of
carbons
in
the
molecul
e i
ncreases
because
t
he st
rengt
h of
V an
der
Wa als
for
ces
between the
mo l
ecul
es i
ncreases
as
the
mol
e c
u l
es
ge t
bi
gg er
as
they
have more
elect
rons
so gr
eater
f
luct
uati
ng di
poles
and
more
point
s of
contact…read more

Page 4

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I
some r
isat
ion
Thi
s i
s conver
ti
ng
unbr
anched
alkanes
int
o br
anched
isomer
s.
Branched
alkanes
are
usef
ul
because
they
have
a higher octane number
A
zeol
it
e cat
alyst
i
s
used.
e.
g.…read more

Page 5

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Order
of
cont
ri
but
ion
to
greenhouse
eff
ect
: H2O > CO2 > CH4
Why each
bond absorbs
a speci
fi
c f
requency
of
IR r
adiat
ion:
each
type
of
bond absorbs
inf
rared
of
a par
ti
cular
f
requency
causi
ng t
he bonds
to
vibr
ate more
t
his
energy
is
tr
ansfer
red t
o other
molecul
es
by col
li
si
ons
so
incr
eases t
heir
ki
neti
c energy
so
temperat
ure i
ncreases…read more

Page 6

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Bi
ofuel
s can
be r
egar
ded as
carbon neutral
because t
he amount
of
CO2 used
in
phot
osynthesi
s
is
equal
t
o t
he amount
produ ced
w hen
it
bur
ns.…read more

Page 7

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When excess
propane
is
react
ed
w i
th
chl
ori
ne i
n t
he pr
esence
of
U V
li
ght
,
two
monochl
oropropanes
are
p r
oduced
because
the
C l
can
att
ach
to
the
end
carbon
or
the
mi
ddle
carbon.…read more

Page 8

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Cycl
oal
kenes
These
have
two
hyd rogen
atoms
less
than
the
open
chai
n al
kene.
e.
g.
cycl
ohexene
C 6H10
Di
enes
These
have
two
doubl
e bonds.
e.
g.…read more

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To
test
f
or
the
presence
of
an al
kene,
add br
omi
ne
w at
er
and
it
wi
ll
change
col
our
f
rom
or
ange t
o col
ourl
ess
if
an
alkene
is
present
.
1. Addi
ti
on
of
hal
ogens
Reagent
:
Br2 or
Cl
2
Condi
ti
ons:
r
oom
temper
atur
e
e.
g.
ethene
+ br
omi
ne
1,
2 di
bromoet
hane
propene
+ c
h l
ori
ne
1,2di
chl
oropr
opane
2.…read more

Page 10

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OR
propan2ol
used
to
make
ethanol
on
a l
arge
scal
e
5. Pol
ymer
isat
ion
of
alkenes
Pol
ymer
isat
ion
is
j
oini
ng
up
many
monomer
s t
o f
orm
one
big
mol
ecul
e.
Thi
s t
ype
is
cal
led
addition polymerisation.…read more

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