Organic Chemistry

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Unit 4 Organic Chemistry

Carbonyl compounds are componds which contain a C=O group. This bond is polar because the electronegative oxygen pulls the bonding electrons toward itself, giving it a delta negative charge and thus giving carbon a delta positive charge. The polar-ness of this bond makes the carbon atom really attractive to nucleophiles who love themselves some positive charge!! (A nucleophile is a species with a lone pair of electrons that is used to form a bond with a delta positive atom). Such compounds come in two forms: Aldehydes and Ketones!

Aldehydes and Ketones

Aldehydes have the functional group R-CHO and their names end in -al e.g. methanal, ethanal, propanal, butanal, pentanal...

Their general formula (only applicable to aliphatic aldehydes) is CnH2n+1CHO where n is 0,1,2,3...etc.



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