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Ionisation energies ­ The first ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to
remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of
gaseous 1+ ions.

As you go down the group the first ionisation energy decreases despite the increasing nucleus…

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Covalent bonding

Occurs between non-metals.
It involves the sharing of electrons between the atoms in the compound in order to gain
a full outer shell (pair of shared electrons).
Simple covalent
o Strong covalent bond and weak forces between molecules, therefore low
melting and boiling points.
Giant covalent
o Diamond…

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As you go along a period the electro negativity increases as nuclear charge increases. As you go
down the group, the electro negativity decreases as there are more shells which shield the
nucleus from electrons (more shielding).

Electro negativity and bonding type

Two different elements with a small difference in…

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Dipole-dipole interaction between a positive atom of one molecule and a negative atom of
another molecule.

An intermolecular ­ attractive force between neighbouring molecules.

A permanent dipole-dipole force ­ weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in
neighbouring polar molecules.

Van der Waals' forces ­ attractive forces between induced dipoles in…


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