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sodium, potassium, silver, H, ammonia, copper 1 +
Magnesium, calcium, iron 2, zinc, lead 2, copper 2, nickel 2 +
Aluminum, chromium 3, iron 3 +
Chemical charges

Isotope signatures: isotope found in space
Relative atomic mass: the average mass of an atom compared to a twelfth…

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Decreasing ionisation energy
Decreasing nuclear charge
Increasing atomic radii
EXCEPTIONS: group 2-3 and 5-6 because repulsion occurs and electrons are easy to remove in these
Metals that react with water to produce an alkaline solution are called alkaline earth metals

Moles: just as a pair is 2 and a…

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Empirical formulae: the simplest ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound e.g. a
substance contains 0.004g of calcium, 0.006g of carbon and 0.0012g of oxygen, give the Empirical
formulae of this compound.

RMM: Ca =40, C=12, O=16(X3)=48

Ca: 0.004/40 C: 0.006 /12 O: 0.0012/48 Divide their masses…

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volumetric analysis:quantitative investigation comparing Titration:practice to determine reacting
4g of NaOHcm3 is dissolved in 1dm3 of solution, calculate molarity (concentration)

Concentration=moles/volume moles=mass/RMM

4g/(23+16+1)=0.1 moles 0.1/1dm3=0.1moldm-3

n.b. 1. if the volume is in cm3, divide by 1000 to dm3

2. to get gdm concentration, multiply by RMM

Solid liquid

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octet rule: atoms desire to have a full outer shell, to compare variances of pressure-divide each other and * by
isoelectronic: atoms with equal electronic configurations (having strong electrostatic attraction)
electron affinity: the opposite of ionisation energy, the ability and energy of an atom to gain a electron

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o crystal lattices have grains and grain boundaries, non-polar: when all dipoles cancel each
o insoluble in non-polar matter, strong Electrostatic forces are in-between sheets
o ionic structure are similar yet are brittle as anions and cations repel each other and splits
o simple solids are different, giant solids…

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In covalent bonding two atomic orbitals overlap to form a molecular orbital which can only 2 electrons

Normal covalent bond Dative covalent bond Sigma and Pi bond

Carbon promotes electrons to be able to Atoms in group 5,6,7 e.g. nitrogen Orbitals can overlap along the internuclear axis (sigma
form 4…


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