Chemistry AQA AS Unit 1 Bonding

Made these notes for my year 12 summer exam to revise and read over. There are spelling mistakes in most of my files but due to the busy exam schedule I had no time to correct them (sorry).

Most files have more information than what is needed but I feel it helps you feel more confident walking into the exam if you have a greater knowledge background and may help when having to apply knowledge to questions. Good luck :)

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  • Created by: Chelcie
  • Created on: 02-09-13 13:02
Preview of Chemistry AQA AS Unit 1 Bonding

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When atoms bond together, they share or transfer electrons to achieve a more stable electron
Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Metals lose their outer electrons, non-metals gain electrons.
Occurs between METALS and NON-METALS.
Positive and negative ions are formed.
Electrons move from the metal to the outer main level of the non-metal
2 charged particles are as a result from the transfer: Positive metal ion, negative
non-metal ion.
The two ions are attracted to each other and other oppositely charged ions by
Occur in a giant lattice structure.
High melting points as energy must be supplied to BREAK the lattice of ions.
Conduct electricity when molten or aqueous as the ions are free to move and hence
conduct electricity.
Compounds are also brittle as the lattice has alternating positive and negative ions. A blow in
one direction could move the ions and produce contact with ions with like charges which
Covalent bonding is a shared pair of electrons between two non-metals.
Molecules are neutral.
Electrostatic attraction between the positive nuclei and shared electrons.
In a double covalent bond four electrons are shared.
Substances composed of molecules are gases, liquids or solids with low melting
temperature. This is because the strong covalent bonds are only between the atoms within
There is only a weak attraction within molecules so they do not need much energy to move
Molecular structures are poor conductors of electricity due to overall neutral charge (if they
dissolve in water they still do not conduct as there are no charged particles).
COORDINATE BONDING/DATIVE COVALENT BONDING is when both the electrons in the
bond come from one of the atoms in the bond.
Dative covalent is between an electron deficient atom and an atom with a lone pair.
Co-ordinate bonds have exactly the same strength as the bond or ordinary covalent.

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A chemical bond in which the outer electrons become a sea of delocalised electrons in amongst
the positive nuclei in a giant lattice.
The delocalised electrons can move through the lattice which
means they can conduct electricity.
High thermal conductivities. The closely packed ions allow for the
spread of increasingly vigorous vibrations.
The greater the charge on the ion, the greater the number of
delocalised electrons and the stronger the electrostatic attraction
between the positive ions and the electrons.…read more

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The atom has a dipole at any given time, but what direction the dipole is in changes at every
This dipole effects the electron distribution in nearby atoms, inducing a dipole. These forces
are called instantaneous dipole-induced.
V.D.W are in addition to any other intermolecular forces.
The dipole is caused by the changing position of the electron cloud/density.
The more electrons there are, the larger the instantaneous dipole will be.
The size of the V.D.W forces increases with the number of electrons present.…read more

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Boiling points of hydrides:
The noble gases show a gradual increase in
boiling points as the V.D.W forces are
increasing with the number of electrons
The HO, HF and NH have higher points than
expected as hydrogen bonding is present
between the molecules of these compounds.
O, N and Fl are the 2 elements
electronegative enough to make hydrogen
bonding possible.…read more

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One, two or three types of intermolecular forces.
Covalent bonds within the molecules hold the atoms together (not between the molecules)
Molecular crystals have low melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion.
Soft crystals that break easily.
They do not conduct electricity (no charged particles).
Giant covalent compounds.
Strong bonds.
High melting temperatures.
Diamond: Consists of pure carbon with covalent bonding between every carbon atom. Giant
structure as bonds spread throughout the structure.…read more


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