Chemistry AQA AS Unit 1 Bonding

Made these notes for my year 12 summer exam to revise and read over. There are spelling mistakes in most of my files but due to the busy exam schedule I had no time to correct them (sorry).

Most files have more information than what is needed but I feel it helps you feel more confident walking into the exam if you have a greater knowledge background and may help when having to apply knowledge to questions. Good luck :)

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  • Created by: Chelcie
  • Created on: 02-09-13 13:02
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Bonding
When atoms bond together, they share or transfer electrons to achieve a more stable electron
arrangement.


IONIC BONDING
Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

Metals lose their outer electrons, non-metals gain electrons.
Occurs between METALS and NON-METALS.
Positive and negative ions are formed.
Electrons move…

Page 2

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METALLIC BONDING
A chemical bond in which the outer electrons become a sea of delocalised electrons in amongst
the positive nuclei in a giant lattice.

The delocalised electrons can move through the lattice which
means they can conduct electricity.
High thermal conductivities. The closely packed ions allow for the
spread…

Page 3

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The atom has a dipole at any given time, but what direction the dipole is in changes at every
moment.
This dipole effects the electron distribution in nearby atoms, inducing a dipole. These forces
are called instantaneous dipole-induced.
V.D.W are in addition to any other intermolecular forces.
The dipole is…

Page 4

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Boiling points of hydrides:
The noble gases show a gradual increase in
boiling points as the V.D.W forces are
increasing with the number of electrons
present.
The HO, HF and NH have higher points than
expected as hydrogen bonding is present
between the molecules of these compounds.
O, N and…

Page 5

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MOLECULAR CRYSTALS
One, two or three types of intermolecular forces.
Covalent bonds within the molecules hold the atoms together (not between the molecules)
Molecular crystals have low melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion.
Soft crystals that break easily.
They do not conduct electricity (no charged particles).

MACROMOLECULAR CRYSTALS
Giant covalent…

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