Chemistry AQA AS Unit 2 Alkenes

Made these notes for my year 12 summer exam to revise and read over. There are spelling mistakes in most of my files but due to the busy exam schedule I had no time to correct them (sorry).

Most files have more information than what is needed but I feel it helps you feel more confident walking into the exam if you have a greater knowledge background and may help when having to apply knowledge to questions. Good luck :)

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  • Created by: Chelcie
  • Created on: 02-09-13 13:28
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Alkenes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
CnH2n
Planar molecules, 120
No rotation around double bonds due to the normal C ­ C bond as well as the p-orbital on
each carbon. The two orbitals overlap to form one single orbital with an electron cloud
density above and below the single bond. bond. Sometimes…

Page 2

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H is slightly positive, Br is slightly negative.
The bond in the hydrogen bromide breaks heterolytically.
1) Electrophile attracted to the C=C/electron rich bond
2) Electrophile accepts a pair of electrons.
3) The Br takes the pair of electrons ... Br this leaves a carbocation.
4) The neg. Charged ion…

Page 3

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SULFURIC ACID
Electrophillic addition
Concentrated HSO
Exothermic




The water is added to release the sulfuric acid by hydrolysis... making the alcohol.




INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOLS:
600K ­ high temperature
6000kPa - high pressure
HPO catalyst (phosphoric acid)

REACTION WITH HYDROGEN
Reagent: H
Catalyst: Nickel
Electrophillic addition also called
HYDROGENATION

ADDITION…

Page 4

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A section of polymer

Identify a repeated unit, find any pair of carbons and circle it.
The monomer is the alkene of the repeating unit.

PROBLEMS WITH PLASTICS:
They are NOT BIODEGRADABLE.
Buried plastics in landfill sites may take hundreds of years to decompose.
Plastic litter can also cause problems…

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