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Page 1

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Unit 1 ­ Structure & Bonding

First Ionisation energy is the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of
gaseous atoms.

Factors affecting ionisation energy
Atomic radius
The further the outer electron from the nucleus, the less energy required to remove it
Nuclear charge

Page 2

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Unit 1 ­ Structure & Bonding

3 3s3p3d 18

4 4s4p4d4f 32

Electrons fill orbitals from the lowest energy upwards.

Examples of Bonding

Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Giant Ionic Lattice

Melting Point - 801c
C Strong forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions are incredibly
difficult to overcome. Strong ionic…

Page 3

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Unit 1 ­ Structure & Bonding

Iodine (I2)
Covalent Bonding (Simple Molecular Lattice)

Melting Point ­ 113.6c
Weak Van der Waals' forces are easy to break

Electrical Conductor ­ No
No electrons are free to move; there is a fixed, rigid structure

Other ­
Iodine sublimes from being a black…

Page 4

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Unit 1 ­ Structure & Bonding

Ice (H2O(s))
Molecular Structure
Covalent (Hydrogen) Bonding

Melting Point - 0c
Hydrogen bonding between oxygen and hydrogen atoms is very strong,
as water molecules are polar because O is very electronegative, making
them difficult to break as they are strongly attracted to each other.…

Page 5

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Unit 1 ­ Structure & Bonding

Summary of different compounds and their properties

Strong attraction between oppositely charged ions, which form a 3D lattice structure.
High melting and boiling points
Good electrical conductors as liquid
Poor electrical conductors as solid
Hard, strong and brittle

Attraction between cations and…

Page 6

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Unit 1 ­ Structure & Bonding


2 Bonding Pairs linear

Cl ­ Be ­ Cl

3 Bonding Pairs trigonal planar

4 Bonding Pairs tetrahedral

5 Bonding Pairs trigonal bipyramid

6 Bonding Pairs octahedral

Non-bonding (lone) pairs of electrons repel more than bonded pairs and will distort minimum
repulsion geometries,…

Page 7

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Unit 1 ­ Structure & Bonding

Electronegativity is the attraction of an atom for the bonding pair of electrons in a covalent

Polar molecules
Have an overall dipole
The more electronegative atom (or ion) will have a slight negative charge

+ -
H - F

The 4 most…


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