Chapter 5 Revision Notes- Summary of Chapter 5

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Chapter 5 Notes
Electron Structure
The number of electrons allowed in each shell changes as the shell
number goes up.
Shell number Number of electrons
1 2
2 8
3 18
4 32
Shells are energy levels and the energy increases. The energy level
number is called the principal quantum number, n.
Maximum number of electrons in a shell=2n².
Shells are made up of atomic orbitals which is a region around the
nucleus that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins .
There are s , p, d and f orbitals and each has a different shape .
Sorbitals the electron cloud is in the shape of a sphere, and can hold
two electrons. The greater the shell number, the greater the radius of
the sorbital. Each shell from n=1 only has one sorbital .
Porbitals the electron cloud is in the shape of a dumbbell. Each
shell from n=2 contains 3 porbitals . The greater the shell number, the
further the porbital is from the nucleus.
Dorbitals each shell from n=3 contains five dorbitals .
Forbitals each shell from n=4 contains seven forbitals .
Shell Number of Subshells Number of Number of
orbitals present electrons electrons
s p d f in in shell
1 1 1s 2 2
2 1 3 2s+2p 2+6 8
3 1 3 5 3s+3p+3d 2+6+10 18
4 1 3 5 7 4s+4p+4d+4f 2+6+10+14 32
Each shell gains a new type of orbital.
The diagram shows the order in which the shells fill up.

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Electrons in an orbital must have opposite spins as it helps to
counteract the repulsion between the negative charges of the two
One electron occupies each orbital before pairing begins .
Electronic configurations should be shown in shell order rather than
order of filling.
The highest energy subshell determines which block an element is
categorised into sblock , pblock or dblock .
The 4s electrons are filled first but also empty before the 3d subshell.…read more


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