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AS Chemistry Revision Notes


Basic Stuff


General Formula An algebraic formula that can CnH2n+1OH
describe any member of a
family of compounds.

Empirical Formula The simplest ratio of atoms of C4H10O
each element in a compound
(cancel the numbers…

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First ten alkanes:


Structural Isomers have different structural arrangements of atoms.

In structural isomers, the molecular formula is the same but the structural formula is

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3 types of structural isomer:

E/Z isomerism is a type of stereoisomerism.

Stereoisomers have the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.

Some alkenes have stereoisomerism ­ this is because there's a lack of rotation around the double
bond and there are 2 different functional groups…

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The theoretical yield of a product is the maximum you could get. It is the mass of a
product that should be made in a reaction if no chemicals are lost in the process.

The actual yield is always less than the theoretical yield. Some chemicals are always lost.


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Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons ­ Single bonds only. Contains carbon and hydrogen atoms
They have the general formula CnH2n+2
Every carbon atom has 4 single bonds with other atoms.
Molecules are tetrahedral around each carbon.
In an alkane molecule, each carbon has 4 pairs of bonding electrons around…

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Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons.

Petroleum (or crude oil) is mostly alkanes.

Crude oil isn't very useful but you can separate it into more useful bits by fractional

Cracking: Fuels made from oil mixtures containing large hydrocarbon molecules are not efficient.
They do not flow easily…

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Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels are incredibly useful ­ we rely on them for loads of things...

The 3 fossil fuels ­ coal, oil and natural gas ­ are major fuels. We use them to provide...

In fact, maybe we rely on them too much...

Fossil fuels are really useful ­…

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Alkenes and Polymers

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. They have the general formula CnH2n. They are
hydrogen and carbon atoms only, so they are hydrocarbons. Alkenes molecules all have at
least 1 C=C double covalent bond. Molecules with C=C bonds are unsaturated because they
can make more bonds with extra atoms…

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This is called addition polymerisation. Different alkenes give polymers with different
properties. The monomers are passed over a heated catalyst and polymerisation occurs.

Polymers and the environment:

Polymers are very useful but also very difficult to get rid of. Synthetic polymers have loads of
advantages, so they're incredibly widespread these…


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