F322 Module 1 Revision Notes

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AS Chemistry Revision Notes
F322
Basic Stuff
TYPE OF FORMULA WHAT IT SHOWS YOU FORMULA FOR BUTAN-1-OL
General Formula An algebraic formula that can CnH2n+1OH
describe any member of a
family of compounds.
Empirical Formula The simplest ratio of atoms of C4H10O
each element in a compound
(cancel the numbers if
possible).
Molecular Formula The actual number of atoms of C4H9OH
each element in a molecule,
with any functional groups
indicated.
Structural Formula Shows the atoms carbon by CH3CH2CH2CH2OH,
carbon with the attached OR CH3(CH2)3OH
hydrogen's and functional
groups.
Displayed Formula Shows how all the atoms are
arranged, and all the bonds
between them.
Skeletal Formula Shows the bonds of the carbon
skeleton only, with any
functional groups. The
hydrogen and carbon atoms
OH
aren't shown. Handy for
drawing large complicated
structures like cyclic
hydrocarbons.
The alkanes are the simplest group of organic compounds.
Organic chemistry is more about groups of similar chemicals rather than individual compounds.
These groups are called homologous series. A homologous series is a bunch of compounds that
have the same functional group and general formula. Consecutive members of a functional group
differ by ­CH2­.
The simplest homologous series is the alkanes. They're straight chain molecules that contain
carbon and hydrogen atoms only.
General formula of alkanes: CnH2n+2.

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First ten alkanes:
Isomerism
Structural Isomers have different structural arrangements of atoms.
In structural isomers, the molecular formula is the same but the structural formula is
different.…read more

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E/Z isomerism is a type of stereoisomerism.
Stereoisomers have the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.
Some alkenes have stereoisomerism ­ this is because there's a lack of rotation around the double
bond and there are 2 different functional groups on each carbon of the double bond. Then you get
an E-isomer and a Z-isomer.
BUT YOU CAN'T USE THE CIS-TRANS SYSTEM IF
THERE ARE MORE THAN 2 DIFFERENT GROUPS
(OTHER THAN HYDROGEN ATOMS) ATTACHED
AROUND TO THE DOUBLE BOND.…read more

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The theoretical yield of a product is the maximum you could get. It is the mass of a
product that should be made in a reaction if no chemicals are lost in the process.
The actual yield is always less than the theoretical yield. Some chemicals are always lost.
The percentage yield is the actual amount of product you collect, written as a
percentage of the theoretical yield, given by the formula:
Percentage Yield = ACTUAL YIELD/PREDICTED YIELD X 100.…read more

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Alkanes
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons ­ Single bonds only. Contains carbon and hydrogen atoms
only.
They have the general formula CnH2n+2
Every carbon atom has 4 single bonds with other atoms.
Molecules are tetrahedral around each carbon.
In an alkane molecule, each carbon has 4 pairs of bonding electrons around it. They all repel each
other equally. So the molecule forms a tetrahedral shape around each carbon.
The boiling point of an alkane depends on its size and shape.…read more

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Petroleum
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons.
Petroleum (or crude oil) is mostly alkanes.
Crude oil isn't very useful but you can separate it into more useful bits by fractional
distillation.
Cracking: Fuels made from oil mixtures containing large hydrocarbon molecules are not efficient.
They do not flow easily and are difficult to ignite. Crude oil often contains too many large
hydrocarbon molecules, and not enough small hydrocarbon molecules, to meet demand. This is
where cracking comes in.…read more

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Fossil Fuels
Fossil fuels are incredibly useful ­ we rely on them for loads of things...
The 3 fossil fuels ­ coal, oil and natural gas ­ are major fuels. We use them to provide...
In fact, maybe we rely on them too much...
Fossil fuels are really useful ­ but there are a couple of major problems with them...
Burning fuels= CO2 emissions = greenhouse gas concentration increases = contributes to global
warming and climate change by enhancing the greenhouse effect.…read more

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Alkenes and Polymers
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. They have the general formula CnH2n. They are
hydrogen and carbon atoms only, so they are hydrocarbons. Alkenes molecules all have at
least 1 C=C double covalent bond. Molecules with C=C bonds are unsaturated because they
can make more bonds with extra atoms in addition reactions.
A double bond is made of a sigma bond () and a pi bond ( )
A bond is formed when 2 s orbitals overlap.…read more

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This is called addition polymerisation. Different alkenes give polymers with different
properties. The monomers are passed over a heated catalyst and polymerisation occurs.
Polymers and the environment:
Polymers are very useful but also very difficult to get rid of. Synthetic polymers have loads of
advantages, so they're incredibly widespread these days. One of the useful things about everyday
polymers is that they are very unreactive. This leads to a problem however. Most polymers aren't
biodegradable and so are really difficult to dispose if.…read more

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