Cell Physiology, Chemical Components of a Cell, Denaturing and Synthesis and Conversion

Hey everyone. As preparation for my GCSE biology exams in May and June 2016 I decided that everyday I will do 5 pages of revision from my book and publish them to get revising. If you find something wrong or incorrect message me and I will correct it and re-upload it. Thanks! :)

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Physiology
Cell physiology is a name given to all the functions, roles and needs
a cell takes on, this can also expand larger and go to the tissues,
organs, systems and an organism itself. Some examples of human
physiology are digestion, blood circulation and contraction of
muscles. Some examples of plant physiology are water absorption
and the production of food. An organisms physiology to an extent is
the physiology of its cells. For example cells in humans need oxygen
and food and we have to breathe and eat. Over the next few
PowerPoints we will examine cell physiology.…read more

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Chemical Components of Cells.…read more

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Water
About 75% of a cell is water and the cell will die if its water
percentage falls lower than this. Water is useful because it is used
in a lot of chemical reactions and enzymes and organelles can move
about in and work easily with water. For example water in plant
cells are useful for photosynthesis and water in animal cells is used
to break help down food molecules. Water also have some helpful
and useful properties, for example water has a high capacity for
heat. This means it can take a lot of heat in and it won't heat up a
lot. This is useful because it ensures proteins in the cytoplasm won't
get harmed. One downside to water is that it freezes at 0 degrees
Celsius so if the temperature goes below 0 degrees Celsius the cell
will be damaged because ice will form in the cytoplasm.…read more

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Proteins
Some proteins contribute to the cells make up and aid the cells
various structures. (EG: the cell membrane, mitochondria and
ribosomes.) These are called structural proteins because they help
make up the cell. There is a second type of protein and they are
enzymes. Enzymes are found throughout the cell and they control
the chemical reactions what keep the cell alive. The nucleus
controls how many enzymes are made and so the nucleus is
comparable to brain or a control centre for the cell. All proteins
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. This can be split
even further into amino acids...…read more

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Amino Acids
Amino acids make up proteins and there are 20 different amino
acids found in animal cells. A protein then is made up of hundreds
of these amino acids combined together in different unique ways.
The chain isn't a straight line and they form shapes. The shapes are
dependent on hoe the amino acids connect and link. The shape of
the protein can change how it reacts to other substances. When you
heat a protein up the links start to break down. This happens at
around 50 degrees Celsius and the protein will not cool and form
into its original shape. When this happens the protein is said to be
denatured. Due to this the protein will lose its original qualities.…read more

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