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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes















AQA




GCSE Biology




New Unit 2




Summary Notes










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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes




B2.1 Cells and Cell Structures

Summary
All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to
their functions. To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell
membranes.

Cells…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes




Mitochondria where most energy is released in respiration.
Ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs.
Cell wall ­ made of cellulose and strengthens plant cells.
Chloroplasts absorb light energy to make food in plant cells.
Permanent vacuole filled with cell sap in plant cells.…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes






Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.

Examples:






Movement into and out of cells

To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell membranes.
Solutes = particles in solution eg glucose, sodium ions, chloride…

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B2.1 Tissues, Organs and Organ Systems

Summary
The cells of multicellular organisms may differentiate and become adapted for specific
functions. Tissues are aggregations of similar cells organs are aggregations of tissues
performing specific physiological functions. Organs are organised into organ systems, which…

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Plant organs
Plant organs include stems, roots and leaves.
Examples of plant tissues include:
epidermal tissues, which cover the plant
mesophyll, which carries out photosynthesis
xylem and phloem, which transport substances around the plant.




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B2.3 Photosynthesis

Summary
Green plants and algae use light energy to make their own food. They obtain the raw materials
they need to make this food from the air and the soil. The conditions in which plants are grown
can be changed…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes





Factors that limit the rate of photosynthesis

1) Temperature
A low temperature will limit the rate as the molecules will move less and therefore the reaction
happens slower

2) Carbon dioxide
A shortage of CO2 will limit the rate as fewer molecules…

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