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Nucleus: controls all cell activities, contains DNA for new cells
Mitochondria: energy from respiration released here
Cytoplasm: chemical reactions essential for life take place here
Cell membrane: controls passage of substances in and out of cells
Ribosomes: where protein synthesis takes place

A plant cell contains…

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CONE CELL in the light sensitive area of the eye (retina), make it possible to see in colour, contain many
mitochondria so we can continuously see in colour , have connections to optic nerves at bottom

SPERM CELL carry genetic information from male parent to egg, long tail has muscle…

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ROOT HAIR CELL increases surface area of root so it can absorb more minerals and water, has no
chloroplasts because it is underground


carbon dioxide + water > oxygen + glucose

Glucose can be used for : respiration, protein synthesis in ribosomes, conversion into fructose and sucrose or is…

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Magnesium: needed to make clorophyll to absorb light for photosynthesis no photosynthesis means no glucose
plant only needs small amounts, but a deficiency will leave yellow patches on leaves where it can't produce

Iron: used for photosynthesis in plants, a deficiency means to plant can't photosynthesise, so it lacks…

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Detritivores start decay process they eat the dead animals or plants and produce waste.

Bacteria and fungi then digest everything they use some of the organic compounds for growth and reproduction,
but most is deposited. They also produce waste from respiration they need energy for digestion.

Ideal conditions = warm,…

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the body. When it evaporates, it cools the skin and takes heat from the body, though there is no evaporation if it is
too humid.

If the body gets too cold, the rate of reaction in cells decreases, so they can't make enough energy and die. The
body has several…

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The catalysts aren't changed during the reaction, so can be used to catalyse many more reactions.



Examples of anabolic reactions include protein synthesis and converting glucose to glycogen this is called


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Different factors can affect the enzyme performance these include pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and
substrate concentration.


At first, there is a relative increase as the pH increases, as it reaches the best pH for that enzyme's performance.
The enzyme's rate of reaction peaks when the enzyme reaches optimum pH,…

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Enzyme concentration

As enzyme concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases, provided that there is excess substrate.

Substrate Concentration

As substrate concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases until all the active sites are occupied and the
rate consequently levels it is said to be saturated.


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Enzymes are proteins which are made of long chains of amino acids folded into a specific shape. Extremes of
temperature and pH break the bonds holding the structure together. As the molecule unravels, the active site
loses its specific shape and the substrate no longer fits. The enzymes is said…




The format came out wierd. But overall it was a great help. Much appreciated.

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