B7 OCR 21st Century Science Printable Revision cards

These revision cards should cover everything you need to know for the B7 OCR 21st Century Science syllabus. If you want to print them, you'll have to fold each card where the blue line in the middle is and glue it down. You can then use it to test yourself on the questions. I recommend going through the cards once before you revise and put the cards into two piles; Know, and Need to revise. Then go through and learn the cards in the Need to revise pile. I hope these are as useful for you as they were to me. Good luck! :)

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Slide 1

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What are the four functions How does exercise change
of the skeleton? bones?
·Stores minerals Increases its strength
·Makes red blood cells, platelets and density.
and some white blood cells
· Allows the body to move
·Protects internal organs
Example of an antagonistic
What is antagonism?
muscle pairs
The biceps and the triceps The result of the interaction
are antagonistic muscles. between structures, chemical
·when the biceps muscle agents, or diseases that have
contracts, the forearm moves up
opposing physiological
·when the triceps muscle
contracts, the forearm moves
functions or effects
down.…read more

Slide 2

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Name and explain the four Knee joint
components of a joint
· smooth layer of cartilage and
synovial fluid to reduce friction
between bones
· elastic ligaments to stabilise
joints while allowing movement
· tendons to transmit the forces
between muscle and bones…read more

Slide 3

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What are the four types of
injuries I need to know? Symptoms of a sprain?
Describe them.
·Sprains: wrench or twist the ligaments of (an ankle,
wrist, or other joint) violently so as to cause pain · Redness and swelling
and swelling but not dislocation.
·Dislocations: injury or disability caused when the · Dislocations
normal position of a joint or other part of the body · Torn ligaments or
is disturbed.
·Torn ligaments: disruption of a ligament, which tendons
may be partial or complete.
·Torn tendons:
tearing of a tendon that occurs when the forces
placed upon the tendon exceed its tensile strength.
Treatment of a sprain? Role of a physiotherapist
Rest- Without rest, continual strain is placed on the Physiotherapists use a variety
affected area, leading to increased inflammation,
pain, and possible further injury. of physical techniques and
Ice- Ice is excellent at reducing the inflammatory therapies in the treatment
response and pain associated with heat generated
by increased blood flow and/or blood loss and rehabilitation of patients
Compression- Compression aims to reduce who are suffering from
the swelling that results from the inflammatory
process. illnesses and/or injuries.
Elevation- aims to reduce swelling by increasing
venous return of blood to the systemic circulation…read more

Slide 4

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Information you should
Advantages of physiotherapy disclose before starting an
exercise regime?
·pain relief.
·better muscle flexibility. · Symptoms
·restoration of muscle strength. · Current medication
·increased range of motion and · Alcohol and tobacco use
suppleness. · Level of current activity
·more endurance when it comes to · Family medical history
·greater sense of well being.
What is the difference How could you measure that
between accuracy and you are fitter than you
repeatability? actually are?
Accuracy: Equipment or BMI: Mass will vary at
method gives a `true' value. different times of the day.
Repeatability: Get similar BP/Pulse: Faulty equipment,
results with each repeat. incorrect technique.…read more

Slide 5

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What is a double circulatory Benefits of a double
system? circulatory system?
A double loop circulatory system:
In a first order circulatory circuit, often called Double circulation is advantageous
the pulmonary circuit, blood is pumped to the lungs,
for mammals because it increases
thus acquiring oxygen while simultaneously
releasing carbon dioxide. Fully oxygenated blood the pressure and hence the flow
then enters the second order circuit, called rate of blood supplied to the tissues
the systemic circuit, going to the brain and body.
The second order systemic output blood is
of the body.
selectively deoxygenated by the needs of the
peripheral organs, returning once again to the heart
where it returns to the lungs to become oxygenated
What substances are carried
Which substances are carried
away by the blood?
to the muscles by blood?
Oxygen and Glucose Blood flow is also required to
Amino acids and proteins are also deposited take away heat produced by
so that cells can create muscle tissue
the muscles that might
White blood cells to prevent infections
Platelets to prevent internal bleeding as a increase core temperature and it
result of any tears or damage takes away wastage such as
Water and salt to control nutrients passed CO2
Into the muscle fibres…read more

Slide 6

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Components of blood and How are red blood cells
their functions adapted to their function?
a. red blood cells ­ transport a. packed with haemoglobin (to
oxygen bind oxygen)
b. white blood cells ­ fighting b. no nucleus (more space for
infections haemoglobin)
c. platelets ­ blood clotting at injury c. biconcave shape (increased
sites surface area for oxygen
d. plasma ­ transporting nutrients, exchange)
antibodies, hormones and waste.
Where are valves found in the
Motion of the blood in the
circulatory system?
heart and body?
· Pulmonary vein · In the heart
· Left Atrium · And in some veins
· Left ventricle
· Aorta
· Vena cava
· Right atrium
· Right ventricle
· Pulmonary artery…read more

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