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AS Level ICT
Contents
Data and Information.............................................................................................................................. 2
Hardware and Software Components .................................................................................................... 5
Network Communications .................................................................................................................... 14
Applications of ICT ................................................................................................................................ 21
Developing ICT Applications .................................................................................................................…read more

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AS Level ICT
Data and Information
Characteristics of Data, Information and Knowledge
Data ­ Data consists of raw facts and figures, it has no meaning until it is processed and turned into
something useful.
Information ­ Information is data which has been processed within a context to give it meaning.
Knowledge ­ Knowledge is the capability of understanding the relationship between pieces of
information and what to actually do with the information.…read more

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AS Level ICT
Transcription Errors
There are two types of transcription errors, Omission Errors and Transposition Errors.
An Omission Error is when information is left out.
A Transposition Error is when the correct information is keyed in but in the wrong order.
Verification & Validation
Data Verification ­ performed by a human and checks that data which has been input has been
accurately transferred from the source to the computer. The two methods used are proof reading
and double entry verification.…read more

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AS Level ICT
The Importance of Adopting Standards
A standard is a set of rules agreed between parties. In IT the standards or protocols are used to
ensure effective communication and sharing of data. Some standards are agreed by users (known as
De Facto) and others are agreed by governing bodies (known as De Jure).
Adopting standards has a number of advantages:
A wide number of manufacturers can build devices, which are compatible with other
manufacturers' devices.…read more

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AS Level ICT
Hardware and Software Components
Input Devices
Keyboard
The normal keyboard includes alphanumeric keys, a numeric keypad, function keys and control keys.
It is used with a pointing device (mouse). Errors can occur easily while typing, called `typos'.
Concept Keyboard
An overlay sheet is placed on top of a touch sensitive pad. The user presses on a picture to select an
item.…read more

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AS Level ICT
stored shapes. Each shape is then interpreted as a character, or rejected. Finally, a digitised
representation of the scanned document is saved as a text file.
Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)
OMR is used to read marks in present positions or boxes from a specially designed form. It can
detect marks made by pencil or black pen. The pattern of reflected light is compared to a store
template.…read more

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AS Level ICT
Thermal Printers
These work in a similar way by burning the image onto the paper rather than using ink. They do save
ink but they also need special paper that costs more.
Ink Jet Printers
Also known as bubble jet printers they work by heating up ink in tubes and then forcing droplets
through the nozzles onto the page. They are used at home because they are cheap and quiet and
can produce good quality printouts.…read more

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AS Level ICT
Speech Synthesis Software
Speech synthesis software coverts text into speech this type of system contains a database of words
and their sounds that are retrieved when a word is spoken. Sometimes the word and has to be
broken up into syllables. Some systems try to add `stress' to the words to make it sound more like a
human. They are used in automated telephone systems (press 1 for this, press 2 for that).…read more

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AS Level ICT
DVD-RW
DVD-RW is now commonly used to store backups because they have larger storage than a CD-RW.
HD DVD
Offers increased capacity, up to 30GB however they aren't widely available and where withdrawn in
2008.
Blu-Ray
A Blu-ray system uses blue light instead of red to read and write data. This is because blue light has a
shorter wavelength and can store more data.…read more

Comments

TamaraAllan

does not include all of the AS Specification for the WJEC ICT Course

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