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Case Study : Holderness Coastline
: Causes, Effects and Management of coastal erosion

Location
Eastern side of the UK
South of Scarborough
Facing the North Sea

Description
Mostly consists of cliffs up to 30 metres high
At the Humber estuary there is a spit called Spurn Head
Cliffs have been…

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Case Study Ganges/Brahmaputra River Basin
Flooding is a significant problem in the Ganges/Brahmaputra river
basin. They cause large scale problems in the low lying country of
Bangladesh. There are both human and natural causes of flooding in
this area.
Human Causes
Deforestation Population increase in Nepal means there is a…

Page 3

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CAUSES
1. High tides and storms in the Bay of Bengal
2. Melting snow in the Himalayas
3. Most of the country less than 6m above sea level
4. High rainfall during July
5. Deforestation in Nepal leading to an increase in surface runoff
6. Channels made shallower by deposition…

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Human Causes
River floodplain upstream narrowed by engineering.
Meander bends straightened to improve navigability and speed flow. River
100 km shorter and 30% faster as a result.
Channelizing to accommodate the size and shape of transportation vessels
has speeded flow downstream
Levées built for better flood protection
Deforestation upstream
Urbanisation…

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Eruption occurred on 18 th May 1980
Located in Washington State, U.S.A.
Part of the Cascades mountain range

Causes
Destructive plate boundary
Juan de Fuca plate (oceanic crust) moving eastward towards the North
American plate(continental crust)
Oceanic forced beneath the continental into the subduction zone
Series of earthquake culminating in…

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Poorer paid jobs a Mexican can earn more during 3 months in the USA than a full year
in Mexico
Poor housing provision ­ weak welfare system in Mexico compared to the USA
Facts
Approx. 2 million Mexicans try to enter the USA each year, many illegally
Border controls have…

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Government encouraged the growth of exportorientatedindustries that earnt
the countrymoney
Encouraged multinational companies to set up factories meaning that money
was madethrough rents, rates, land purchase and wages

Consequences of rapid development:
Improved standard of living
Improvements in healthcare (life expectancy now stands at about 74
years)
Improvements in education…

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150 hectares of open space created
17 conservation areas set up

Economic development
Financial and hitech
firms encouraged into the area (eg. Stock Exchange and
theGuardian newspaper)
Canary Wharf (245 metre tower) developed and rented out as
office space
Docklands Light Railway built ­ carries 350,000 passengers
each week
Jubilee…

Page 9

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Case Study : Alcan Smelter, Lynemouth
Key Learning Points : Location of manufacturing industries
The smelter produces aluminium which is used to produce a range of products (e.g.
aeroplane
wings tin foil)
Located at Lynemouth due to a number of factors.
These include:
Proximity to its own power station that…

Page 10

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For every 100 mining jobs lost a further 50 were lost in supporting
industries
In 1987 the unemployment rate stood at 18%
High unemployment meant less disposable income. This impacted on
local shops and services
Poor housing that lacked basic amenities such as double glazing and
central heating
Substandard infrastructure…

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