Case Studies

This contains many of the OCR case studies needed

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  • Created on: 30-05-10 15:48
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Case Study : Holderness Coastline
: Causes, Effects and Management of coastal erosion
Location
Eastern side of the UK
South of Scarborough
Facing the North Sea
Description
Mostly consists of cliffs up to 30 metres high
At the Humber estuary there is a spit called Spurn Head
Cliffs have been retreated at a rate of about 1.2 metres a year
Causes of Erosion
Cliffs made of soft material (mainly clays and sands) that is easily undermined
by wave action
Water logging of the cliffs by rain results in slumping
Attacked by destructive waves that are blown by strong winds across the North
Sea
Processes of hydraulic action and abrasion at work
Sand at the foot of the cliffs is constantly moving south due to longshore drift.
This means a wide beach cannot be created so the cliff is relatively unprotected
Effects of Erosion
4km stretch of land has been lost to the sea since Roman Times
Villages, farms (e.g. Grange Farm at Great Cowden) and caravan sites lost to
the sea
Easington gas terminal is at risk of falling into the sea
Towns including Hornsea and Withernsea are under threat
Main roads at risk including the B1242 at Mappleton
Protection Techniques
o Wooden revetments and rock barriers have been constructed to protect
Mappleton
o A series of groynes have been constructed at the cliff base to prevent the
movement of beachmaterial
o However a large rock groyne at Mapleton has increased erosion to the south to
Arate of 10 metres per year by blocking the movement of protective material
o A 1km sea wall costing £4.5 million has been built to protect Easington gas
terminal
o Concrete blocks and rubble have been dumped at the cliff base as a temporary
barrier to absorb wave energy
o Proposal to dump colliery waste 50km from the coast to refract waves and
encourage the formation of bays that would hold sand
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Case Study Ganges/Brahmaputra River Basin
Flooding is a significant problem in the Ganges/Brahmaputra river
basin. They cause large scale problems in the low lying country of
Bangladesh. There are both human and natural causes of flooding in
this area.
Human Causes
Deforestation Population increase in Nepal means there is a
greater demand for food, fuel and building materials.
As a result deforestation has increased significantly. This
reduces interception and increases runoff. This leads to soil
erosion.…read more

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CAUSES
1. High tides and storms in the Bay of Bengal
2. Melting snow in the Himalayas
3. Most of the country less than 6m above sea level
4. High rainfall during July
5. Deforestation in Nepal leading to an increase in surface runoff
6.…read more

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Human Causes
River floodplain upstream narrowed by engineering.
Meander bends straightened to improve navigability and speed flow. River
100 km shorter and 30% faster as a result.…read more

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Eruption occurred on 18 th May 1980
Located in Washington State, U.S.A.
Part of the Cascades mountain range
Causes
Destructive plate boundary
Juan de Fuca plate (oceanic crust) moving eastward towards the North
American plate(continental crust)
Oceanic forced beneath the continental into the subduction zone
Series of earthquake culminating in one measuring 5 on the richter Scale on
the morning ofthe eruption
Build up of magma over time led to the development of a cryptodome on
north side of mountain
Effects
Mt.St.…read more

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Poorer paid jobs a Mexican can earn more during 3 months in the USA than a full year
in Mexico
Poor housing provision ­ weak welfare system in Mexico compared to the USA
Facts
Approx. 2 million Mexicans try to enter the USA each year, many illegally
Border controls have been set up ­ horses, helicopters, advanced detective
equipment
Advantages to the USA
Overcomes labour shortages
Migrants prepared to do dirty, lowskilled, lowpaid jobs (e.g.…read more

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Government encouraged the growth of exportorientatedindustries that earnt
the countrymoney
Encouraged multinational companies to set up factories meaning that money
was madethrough rents, rates, land purchase and wages
Consequences of rapid development:
Improved standard of living
Improvements in healthcare (life expectancy now stands at about 74
years)
Improvements in education (literacy rate was 30% in 1960 and is now
97%)
Change in industrial structure (in the 1950s, 86% of exports were
agriculturl products.…read more

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Economic development
Financial and hitech
firms encouraged into the area (eg.…read more

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Case Study : Alcan Smelter, Lynemouth
Key Learning Points : Location of manufacturing industries
The smelter produces aluminium which is used to produce a range of products (e.g.
aeroplane
wings tin foil)
Located at Lynemouth due to a number of factors.…read more

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For every 100 mining jobs lost a further 50 were lost in supporting
industries
In 1987 the unemployment rate stood at 18%
High unemployment meant less disposable income.…read more

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