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Carboxylic Acids ­ Answers

1. Carboxylic acids contain the group , known as the carboxyl group, as it consists of the carbonyl group,
C=O, and the hydroxyl group, OH.
2. Carboxylic acids are found in a number of fruits and vegetables:
Citric acid is a tribasic acid with skeletal formula:…

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v. Iodoform Reaction of a Methyl Ketone or Secondary Alcohol ­ On addition of a solution of iodine in aqueous
sodium hydroxide to a methyl ketone (e.g. butanone, CH3CH2COCH3), the salt of the acid with one fewer carbon
atoms is produced (propanoic acid, CH3CH2COOH). The free carboxylic acid is formed…

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Solubility: They are soluble in several organic solvents, but react with water (often violently) so can't be
dissolved in it
16. Acid chlorides are prepared from carboxylic acids. The ­OH group is replaced by a chlorine atom. The reagents
that can be used are phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus trichloride or thionyl…

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27. Esters are hydrolysed when heated under reflux with either aqueous acid or aqueous alkali:

Here, the acid is a catalyst and the reaction is reversible, therefore the yield of acid and alcohol is low.
This reaction is…

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37. A condensation polymer is formed when monomers join together with the elimination of a simple molecule, such
as water of HCl. Polyesters are condensation polymers. The monomers that condense must have two groups,
one at each end of the molecule.
38. A polyester is formed ia dicarboxylic acid, such…


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