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Further Organic Chemistry ­ Revision.
Carboxylic Acids.
Carboxylic acids contain the group ­COOH. This is called the carboxyl group, because in consists of
the carbonyl group and the hydroxyl group.

There is hydrogen bonding between the first few carboxylic acids, but as the carbon chains grow, the
hydrogen bonding is…

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Most esters are liquid at room temperature. They are insoluble in water, as they cannot form
hydrogen bonds, as the oxygens are sterically hindered.

Preparation.

Warm an alcohol with a carboxylic acid under reflux, with a few drops of sulphuric acid.
The alcohol can be reacted with an acid chloride…

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Preparation.

They are prepared from carboxylic acids. The ­OH group is replaced by a chlorine atom. The
reagents which can be used are phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus trichloride or thionyl
chloride.

Reactions.

With water, ethanoyl chloride reacts vigorously with water, forming ethanoic clouds and
clouds of hydrogen chloride gas. As a…

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