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Carbonyl Compounds.
Carbonyl compounds Oxygen is more
contain the C=O group. electronegative, so the
The carbon is bonded to bonding electrons are
the oxygen by a sigma pulled towards the
bond and a pi bond. oxygen, making it -.
This makes the carbon
atom susceptible to
attack by nucleophiles.…read more

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The carbon atom has two single
This also makes it easy for
bonds, one double bond no lone
nucleophiles to attack the carbon,
pairs, so the 3 bonds repel each
as they can attack from above or
other to the position of maximum
below. This means a single optical
separation. This is planar
isomer is never obtained by
triangular, with bond angles of
The polarity of the C=O bond is
not cancelled by the other
groups, so the molecules are
polar…read more

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Physical Properties.
· They have dipole-dipole forces because they are polar
· They have London forces
Boiling point · They do not have hydrogen bonding, as they do not have a
hydrogen atom that is sufficiently +
· The lower members in both series are soluble in water, as
there is hydrogen bonding between the lone pair on the
Solubility oxygen of the carbonyl compound and the + hydrogen in
· The lower members of aldehydes have pungent odours
· Ketones have much sweeter smells than aldehydes
Smell · Complex aldehydes and ketones are often used as perfumes…read more

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Aldehydes have a hydrogen atom bonded to the carbon of
the C=O group.
Aliphatic aldehydes have the general formula CnH2n+1CHO.
The formulae can be represented by RCHO, where R can
be an organic group, including hydrogen.…read more

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Ketones do not have a hydrogen atom
bonded to the carbon of the group
The formulae can be written RCOR', where R
and R' are organic groups, but not hydrogen.…read more

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