Aldehydes and Ketones

physical properties

functional group

solubility

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ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
Contain carbonyl group C=O
Carbonyl group is polar because oxygen has a high
electronegativity
Can have alkyl and aryl groups
Aldehydes have a hydrogen bonded to the carbon of the
carbonyl group (RCH=O) and use the suffix ­al for naming
Ketones have two carbons bonded to the carbon of the
carbonyl group (RC=OR') and use the suffix ­one for
naming
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Carbonyl group can only take part in hydrogen bonding if in aqueous solution
Permanent dipole-dipole attractions in carbonyl compounds
Straight chain isomers have higher boiling points than branched chain isomers
SOLUBILITY IN WATER
Carbonyl group has a highly electronegative oxygen, so hydrogen bonding can occur
when carbonyl compounds are mixed with water
Solubility decreases as molar mass increases

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