Carbonyl compounds

  • Created by: Ash_angel
  • Created on: 17-02-19 11:29
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  • Carbonyl Compounds
    • Function group: C=O
    • compounds include Aldehydes and Ketones
    • Reducing carbonyls
      • use  sodium borohydride, NaBH4 as a reducing agent
      • Reduction of aldehyde: 2[H] and reducing agent into primary alcohol
      • Reduction of ketones: 2[H] and reducing agent into secondary alcohol.
      • This is an example of a Nucleophillic addition reactions
    • Reaction with carbonyls
      • Reacts with Hydrogen cyanide to produce hydroxynitriles
        • This is a example of a Nucleophilic addition reactions
        • Normally done with NaCN/H+ which is less dangerous than HCN which is very toxic
      • Brady's reagent
        • 2,4-DNPH
        • forms bright orange precipitate if a carbonyl group is present
        • You can find the unknown carbonyl compound by comparing it's melting point with known compounds
          • Each different carbonyl compound produces a crystalline derivative with a different melting point.
      • Tollen's reagent
        • Allows you to distinguish between an aldehyde and a ketone.
          • Aldehyde can be easily oxidised to carboxylic acid  while ketones can't.
            • The oxidising agent gets reduced as aldehyde is oxidised. As it does it changes colour.
        • It is a colourless solution of silver nitrate dissolved in aqueous ammonia.
        • It forms a silver mirror when aldehyde is present


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