Caatinga to Rio - Case Study

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  • Created on: 01-07-14 17:34
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4- Caatinga to Rio
> Rural to Urban migration: patterns, reasons and impacts.
Caatinga: Dry Zone in NE Brazil, South America.
Push Factors:
- Climate: Dry, unreliable rainfall, every few years there is a drought (crops die).
- Farming: failing harvests = food shortages.
- Water: Only supply is dirty ­ risk of yellow fever.
- Poor diet: Beans and rice on most days = malnutrition.
- Health: High infant mortality (food shortages).
- Health Care: No doctors, limited supplies.
- Education: limited schooling, few careers for young; the main industry is farming.
- Flooding: Cause by dam, 75000 people leave homes, low compensation for flooded land.
Rio de Janeiro: City in SE Brazil, South America.
Pull Factors:
- Employment: Variety of jobs in the formal and informal sectors.
- Healthcare: Access is better.
- Water: Improved access and sanitation.
- Education: More children access schools.
- Perceived better QOL.
Negative Impacts:
Economic Social
- Young leave area for better QOL = - Families split.
Agricultural productivity decreases (loss of - Unbalanced population.
labour). - Migrants can't afford housing, build of edge of towns,
- Lower tax income for local area. roadsides, steep hills.
- Less skilled labour force. - Favelas overcrowded, scrap materials.
- Migrants send money back. - Rains: flash floods carry weak houses.
- Diseases easily spread.
- No basic amenities (electricity, running water, sewage
- Crime, prostitution, drug trafficking.
- Huge amount of waste produced; unlikely to be
collected, with polluted water and sewage in open
drains causes health risks (outbreak of cholera 1992).
- Rocinha = largest favela in Brazil, 25% live in favelas (population trebled since 1950 to 6million).
- Well-off Rio residents move out of the city to places such as Barra da Tijuca ­ cleaner and safer.
+ Reduced noise pollution as people move from Caatinga.
+ Potential for close communities ­ all have to work together.
+ More privacy as people move away.
Self-Help Schemes:

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Groups of people encouraged to build own homes.
- Local authority provides breeze-blocks and roofing tiles, people provide labour.
+ Money saved used to provide electricity, clean water, tarred roads.
+ Creates a community spirit.
- Local authorities rarely keep up pace with newcomers.…read more


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