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OCR Chemistry for GCSE Revision Notes C1-3




C1a Cooking

Some foods must be cooked: it kills harmful microbes with high temps, improves
the taste/texture, makes it easier to digest
The final product is different because of chemical reactions
Irreversible change, requiring energy, meat and eggs are high in protein, when…

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OCR Chemistry for GCSE Revision Notes C1-3




Esters can be used as solvents (solution = solvent + solute [that do not separate]),
they dissolve many substances which don't dissolve by water e.g. NVR


C1d Making crude oil useful

Crude oil formed when small sea creatures and plants died and buried,…

Page 3

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OCR Chemistry for GCSE Revision Notes C1-3




Exothermic/endothermic ­ give out/take in energy, bond forming is exothermic,
bond breaking is endothermic. Combustion is exothermic in O2
Calorimeter(metal can which measures the heat)
Energy = mass(kg) x s.h.c.(4.2 for water) x temp. change( C)
Energy per gram(J/g) = energy supplied(J) /…

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OCR Chemistry for GCSE Revision Notes C1-3




The crust is rocky, the mantle is cold and rigid nearer the crust but less rigid nearer
the core (where convection currents can move molten rocks), the outer core is
liquid, and the inner core is solid. The lithosphere is the outer 100km…

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OCR Chemistry for GCSE Revision Notes C1-3




steam cooled to form oceans, and some of the CO2 dissolved into the oceans. 3.
Much later simple plant life converted CO2 by photosynthesis; ammonia was
converted into nitrogen by bacteria which stayed there due to lack of reactivity.
A catalytic converter can…

Page 6

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OCR Chemistry for GCSE Revision Notes C1-3




Ionic lattices are held by positive ions which are electrostatically attracted to the ­ve
ions ­ a lot of energy is needed to pull ions apart ­ high m.p.
Ionic compounds can't conduct electricity when solid because electrons can't flow
through them, the…

Page 7

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OCR Chemistry for GCSE Revision Notes C1-3




Aluminium is from the mineral bauxite in the form of aluminium oxide, aluminium is
extracted from the purified oxide by electrolysis: 2Al2O3 4Al + 3O2
It is dissolved in molten cyrolite because it is insoluble in water and has a high m.p.
The…

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