C1 Carbon Chemistry Revision Notes

Notes for OCR GCSE Chemistry C1

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Sam Smitheringale
C1 Carbon Chemistry
Chemical Changes are shown using chemical equations
Symbol Equations need to be balanced
Additives make food last longer and look and taste better
Antioxidants stop food reacting with oxygen
Emulsifiers allow oil and water to mix
Active packaging helps food last longer
Intelligent packaging tells you when food is off
Some foods have to be cooked
o Boiling
o Steaming
o Grilling
o Baking
o Frying
Cooking causes chemical changes
Baking powder undergoes chemical change when heated
Perfumes can be natural or artificial
Esters are made by esterfication
Perfumes need certain properties
o Easily Evaporates
o Non Toxic
o Doesn't react with water
o Doesn't irritate skin
o Insoluble in water
New perfumes have to be tested, mainly on animals
States of matter depend on the forces between particles
Volatility of a substance is how we smell it
A solution is a mixture of a solvent and a solute
Nail varnish is insoluble in water but soluble in acetone
Plastics are long chain molecules called polymers
Addition polymers are made under high pressure
Forces between molecules determine the properties of plastic
The properties of polymers decide what they are used for:
o Strong, rigid ­ Plastic Bottles
o Light and stretchy ­ Plastic bags
o PVC ­ Synthetic leather
o Polystyrene foam ­ Thermal insulator
o Heat resistant ­ plastic kettles
Polymers are often used to make clothes
Non bio-digradable plastics cause disposal problems
Alkanes have all C-C single bonds

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Sam Smitheringale
Alkenes have a C=C double bond
Covalent bonds hold atoms in a molecule together
Crude oil is separated into different hydrocarbon fractions
o Different boiling temperatures allow it to crack
Hydrocarbon properties change as the chain gets longer
Its all down to the bonds in and between hydrocarbons
Cracking is splitting up long hydrocarbons
Conditions that are need for cracking:
o Hot
o Catalyst
Cracking helps match supply and demand
Complete combustion happens when there's plenty of oxygen
Incomplete combustion of Hydrocarbons is…read more



Thanks. This really helped!!! Xx

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