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The Hampden Case
Name: John Hampden
Year of Birth: 1595
Place of Birth: Buckinghamshire
Year of death: 1643
Religion: Puritan
· English Politician and leading public opponent of the regime.
· As a child he became owner of a large estate and a ward of the crown.
· In favour of impeachment more than attainder.
· A statue of him, selected by the Victorians, is found at the entrance to the Palace of
Westminster (symbol to represent noblest opposition, prepared to defend
Parliament's rights).…read more

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Refused to pay 20 shillings in Ship Money and collaborated with John Pym in an
attempt to prevent Charles levying of what was seen as an unnecessary tax.
1637 / 1638 His case was brought before twelve judges of the Court of the
Exchequer (for crown revenue cases). It lasted 6 months a nd
was led by Baron Finch (Sir John Finch) whose high handed opinions provoked
distrust of Charles' court.…read more

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He was late
found guilty of sedition.
1634 Robert Heath (Charles I Chief Justice of the Common Pleas) dismissed at the
instigation of Laud because it was thought that he might oppose religious changes.
1637 Bishop John Williams imprisoned for published criticism "The Holy Table,
Name and Thing."
John Bastwick brought before the Star Chamber for his criticism with Burton and
Each of them was publicly mutilated for their criticism of Laud's innovations.…read more

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The first Earl of Clarendon
Name: Edward Hyde
Year of Birth: 1609
Place of Birth: Wiltshire
Year of death: 1674
Religion: favoured the Anglican church
· He supported the impeachment of the Earl of Strafford.
· He opposed the Root and Branch Bill which threatened to abolish episcopacy.
· Leading figure in the Constitutional Royalist Party to stop the king taking aggressive
measures.…read more

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Opposed Five Members Coup but supported still supported the monarchy. He
helped produce the answers to the 19 propositions stating that the monarch was the
best protection of: church, constitution and order.Hyde was expelled from Parliament
and denounced as an "evil councillor."
1643 Hyde was knighted and appointed to the Privy Council, and later he was made
Chancellor of the Exchequer.In the autumn he was appointed to the "Junto" which
discussed important issues with the king before they were revealed to the Privy
Council.…read more

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The development of antiCatholicism
The progression of Catholicism from the Reformation onwards was shaped by
multiple events.
1534 The Act of Supremacy declared the English crown to be "the only supreme
head on Earth of the Church of England" in place of the Pope. Anti Catholicism was
grounded in the fear that the Pope sought to reimpose religiospiritual authority over
England and secular power over the country.
15531558 Catholicism returned under Mary I.…read more

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The threat of the Spanish War, under Elizabeth I, heightened antiCatholicism,
especially during attempted invasions like the Spanish invasion of 1588 (the Spanish
1605 The Gunpowder plot was an attempt by Guy Fawkes and a collection of
catholic conspirators who intended to blow up King James I and parliament. It vividly
illustrated the capabilities and danger posed by English Catholics, regardless of their
16181648 The Thirty Years' War was a religious war in Europe.…read more

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Charles decided to introduce a new prayer book into Scotland although it wan't
fully prepared.
1634 Many of the lords in Scotland petitioned against Charles' religious innovations,
but this was rejected by the sovereign completely.
1637 As part of the imposition of religious uniformity Laud was able to secure the
cancellation of the charter of one of the New England companies The Massachusetts
Bay Company.…read more


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