Bridging the development gap

Unit 3 edexcel A2 geography bridging the development gap

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Maria Gaya Mesquida UNIT3
Geography unit 3 ­ Bridging the development gap
GDP: gross domestic product, is the total value of goods and services produced by a country
during a year
GNI: gross national income; similar to GDP but also includes income from overseas investment by
organisations and residents
PPP: purchasing power parity; shows the capita income when the cost of living is taken into
EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE: the percentage of people employed in each of the four major
employment sectors
ENERGY CONSUMPTION: use of energy as a source of heat or power or as a raw material input to
a manufacturing process
UNDERNOURISHMENT: not having enough food to develop or function normally
ADULT LITERACY: the amount of adults that have the ability to read and write
CALORIES PER DAY: the amount of calories someone has a day
POPULATION GROWTH RATE: increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or a state
LIFE EXPECTANCY: the number of years that an individual is expected to live as determined by
INFANT MORTALITY: the death rate during the first year of life
PQLI: physical quality of life index; is the attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a
HDI: human development index; a United Nations measure of well-being in a country. Literacy rate,
Birth rate, GDP per capita
GEM: growing equality mortgage; a home loan arrangement in which the payments are increased
each year by a specific amount
GDI: gender-related development index; an indication of the standard of living in a country,
developed by the United Nations
The World Bank now classifies the countries as: - high income countries
(upper) middle income countries
(lower) middle income countries
Low income countries

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Maria Gaya Mesquida UNIT3
This only refers to economics, excluding all of the social factors.
Which are the most 2 influential players with regards to trade and therefore development?
International organisations are in my opinion one of the most influential players when looking at
trade and development as they include a wide range of countries and assisting them with aid or
economic funding when needed. They have term and conditions set up to make free trade and
obtain an optimum layer of equality.…read more

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Maria Gaya Mesquida UNIT3
little or no social protection mechanisms
limited access to health and education opportunities
limited access to credit facilities
careful management or significant efforts to promote sustainable development
environmental health issues linked to lack of clean water and sanitation access
problems resulting from rapid industrialisation such as toxic waste, water and air pollution,
also noise pollution
Q. Explain why some groups of people within a country have a lower level of development than
others.…read more

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Maria Gaya Mesquida UNIT3
APARTHEID is an African Word meaning `segregation', which is used to describe a
political legal system used in South Africa to separate different ethnic groups there
between 1948 and 1994
Gradually South Africa developed a multi-ethnic population
Afrikaners thought they were superior to indigenous Africans
Many blacks from South Africa were banned from jobs in 1911 when Apartheid was
introduced.…read more

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Maria Gaya Mesquida UNIT3
8. Aid to develop education, health services, safe water supplies, modern means of
9.…read more


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