Bridging the Development Gap - Summary and case studies

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Bridging the Development Gap
    • 1.The causes of the Development Gap
      • Theories that explain the gap
        • Wallenstein's World Systems Theory - Countries are either part of the core, semi-periphery or periphery, and can move between these categories
        • Kondratiev Waves (super cycles)- That economic power is in the country with the technological development
        • AG Frank's Dependancy Theory - developed countries keep others in a state of underdevelopment to take their resources and human capital. This maintains the developed worlds consumer lifestyle
          • This  is supported by (neo) Colonialism
          • Also supported by unfair terms of trade
            • Commodity traders deal in future markets, putting downwards pressure on prices or else take sthere business somewhere else which has led to low prices for many agricultural goods
            • Overseas tariffs on processed goods means LICs cannot value add
      • Models that explain the gap
        • Rostow's Take off Model - when lowly developed countries are like a traditional society and as they develop go towards capitalism and mass consumption
        • North-Divide - countries are either part of the developed North or underdeveloped South according to the Brandt Line. The North has 80% of the wealth but 25% of the population. This was made in the 1980s before the emergence of the Asian Tigers/BRICS
      • How the gap can be measured
        • Single Measures
          • Birth Rate
          • Death Rate
          • Literacy Rate
          • GDP - the total number of goods and services produced by a country in one year
          • Gender Equality
          • Patent Filings
          • PPP - purchasing power parity- showers what income per capita is when cost of living is take into account
          • Passenger Cars
          • Internet Access
        • Compound indicators
          • HDI (human development index) - measures life expectancy, GNI per capita, and mean years of schooling
          • SPI( social Progress Index) - measures Basic Human Needs, Foundations of Wellbeing and Opportunity
          • HSI ( human suffering Index) - uses social and political factors such as civil rights and personal freedom
      • Global players and organisations
      • Trade and Investment
        • Often unfair terms of trade
          • only 10% of profit from coffee goes towards the producers, exporters and transporters, 90% goes towards the retailer, roaster and importer
    • 2. The Consequences of the Development Gap
      • Social
        • People may be prevented from getting certain opportunities
      • Economic
        • Some countries will have much less economic power than others
        • Poverty in areas
      • Political
        • Undeveloped areas may be vulnerable to corruption
      • Environmental
        • Natural resources may be exploited unsustainably
        • High levels of pollution, as development is often prioritised over the environment
          • 70% of China's rivers contain so many toxins they are unsuitable for drinking
          • Acid rain falls in 30% of China
          • In Cairo breathing the air is equivalent to smoking 60 cigarettes a day
          • Traffic Jams in Mexico City can be over 90m
      • Where the divides occur
        • Regional Inequalities
          • Often rural areas are less developed than urban areas
            • In India rural wages are a 1/3 of city ones
          • Affluent megacities often have slums surrounding them
            • In Dharavi, the largest slum in Mumbai, water is only available for 2hrs a day
            • In the developing World, only 25% of urban dwellers have access to adevqauete sanitation and waste disposal
        • Ethnic/Religious Inequalities
          • In South Africa due to Apartheid (1948 - 1994) there are differences in development between its White and Black population
            • Those who have little/no education are 22.3%  of the Black population, 1.4% White
            • Those who have electricity for cooking 39.3% of the Black population, 96.6% White
          • In Bangladesh the Muslim poverty rate is higher than the Non-Muslim Poverty rate
        • Class inequalities
          • In India due to its caste system,  Dalits have a much lower development
            • It was estimated in 2001-05 a crime was committed against a dalit person every 18 minutes
            • 37.8% of government schools force Dalit children to sit separately
    • 3. Reducing the Development Gap
      • Theories and approaches
        • Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015)
          • The poverty reduction rate is 1.2% a year
          • Mortality among under-5s has been reduced by 2.8%
        • Neo-Liberalism - promotes trade not aid
        • Human DevelopmentTheory - multiple dimensions need to be take into account for development , not just economic
        • Sustainable DevelopmentGoals (2015-2030)
      • Aid Strategies
        • Top-down
          • Pergau Dam, Malaysia - Building began in 1981 with money from the UK foreign aid budget. It provides hydroelectric power, however the majority of this goes to the capital. It also deforested large areas of the rainforest and has been ruled of no benefit to the Malaysian people by the British High Court
          • Often large-scale and raise more money
          • The role of trade and investment
            • HIPC debt relief scheme - a 2005 meeting of the G8 called to cancel all bets worth $40 billion, the governments had to show lack of corruption, good management and spend the money saved on social improvements
              • In Uganda it has meant for a 20% increase in spending on public services and 10% of the population gaining access to clean water
            • Fair Trade - Pay a fair price for goods and services, working with small-scale producers. However the products are more expensive
            • EPAs (Economic Partnership Agreements) -  the developing countries mist remove import duties and subsidies, and the EU market opens up fully
            • SAPs (structural adjustment programmes) - Debt relief as long as IMF imposed sanctions and budgets are followed. Often involves free-market policies
          • often focus on high-profile projects i.e after disasters
          • Akosombo Dam, Ghana.  A hydroelectric dam which would help smelt raw bauxite into aluminium. However it flooded land forcing 80,000 to relocate and a decrease in crop yields
        • Bottom-up
          • Kingship Project, Moldova - King's Cshool in Ottery St. Mary Devon, aided money to fund a community centre in Moldova. It has kitchen, bathroom and medical facilities. However it will not solve the problem of net outmigration
          • More in touch with community needs
          • Usually involves the work of NGOs
            • Action Against Hunger International operate in 45+ countries
              • In 2014 in Nicaragua they helped bring 3,084 people economic self-sufficiency
      • The role of trade and investment
        • HIPC debt relief scheme - a 2005 meeting of the G8 called to cancel all bets worth $40 billion, the governments had to show lack of corruption, good management and spend the money saved on social improvements
          • In Uganda it has meant for a 20% increase in spending on public services and 10% of the population gaining access to clean water
        • Fair Trade - Pay a fair price for goods and services, working with small-scale producers. However the products are more expensive
        • EPAs (Economic Partnership Agreements) -  the developing countries mist remove import duties and subsidies, and the EU market opens up fully
        • SAPs (structural adjustment programmes) - Debt relief as long as IMF imposed sanctions and budgets are followed. Often involves free-market policies

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Bridging the Development Gap resources »