Access to technology and environmental determinism

  • Created by: Anoush
  • Created on: 03-02-16 22:00
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  • Access to technology and environmental determinism
    • Technology- The development of knowledge, techniques and systems which can be used to help solve problems and extend human capablities
    • The technological gap- London vs Dhaka
      • London's Thames Barrier(1974)
        • The Barrier cost £535m to build and became operational in 1982 with the expectation that it would last until 2030
        • Stops the incoming tide that would otherwise sweep up the Thames towards Central London.
          • London is a city with the highest population density in Britain. It's a major centre for international business and commerce.
            • 6th largest economy in the world=generates 20% of UK's GDP.
              • 2014, 48 closures
        • Is a new barrier needed?
          • 2005, scientists from 'Thames Estuary 2100 project- set up by Environment Agency
            • Scientists predicted that the level of flood defence offered by TB won't be enough to withstand future flood surges.
              • In 2007, plans were put forward by Gov ministers for a new £20bn flood defence scheme for London, east of TB.
      • Dhaka, capital city of Bangladesh and heart of countries economy
        • GDP= projected to be £65bn by 2050, but average wage is £300 a year, 50% below poverty line.
          • 1998, Dhaka was flooded again as its earlier engineering  solutions of DFIPP and FAP(building embankments, levees0 were inadequate.
            • Despite phase II of DFIPP intro, Dhaka flooded in 2004, bringing the city to a standstill.
              • Informal embankments (not metal, limited efforts.
    • Global challenges and technological solutions
      • Natural hazards: reduces life expectancy
        • Warning evacuation systems, flood defence schemes
      • Poor health+ low life expectancy  especially from disease
        • clean water and sewage systems, immunisation+ vaccination programmes, medical technology
      • Malnutrition + dominance of agricultural low wages
        • Farm technology to raise yields, better transport to distribute food, processing plants
    • Environmental determinism: belief that the environment determines the patterns of human culture + societal development
      • E.g. Haiti's development has been prevented due to its proximity to an active plate boundary
        • E.g. Bangladesh's development is affected by its low-lying relief, meaning it's regularly flooded and costs millions to rebuild + adapt
      • Japan and UK have been able to use technology to solve/prevent a range of environmental and social issues
        • Depends on the economic ability to irrigate- e.g. Japan, Holland
        • Uk's Thames Barrier was closed 40 times in 2014
      • Haiti vs Japan earthquake
        • Haiti(2010): 7.0, killed= 200,000
          • Japan(2011)= 9.0, killed=18000
    • Technological gap: best access in highly developed countries like NA, Eurasia. Worst access in LEDC's like Sub-Saharan Africa and Afghanistan
    • Uneven availability of internet access: 750m households and 41%connected to the internet, globally.
    • TECH LEAPFROGGING: Bridge Academies
      • Charity trying to create a model for developing schools in developing countries
        • Tablets: display scripted lessons, record attendance (students+ teachers), assessment scores, lesson pacing and pupil comprehension.
          • Smartphones: Academy Managers can do pupil admissions, tuition payments.
            • Use tech in a n interesting way to promote education and 'bridge the barriers' of education and access.
              • Reading fluency: 205% higher
            • 80% of the Kenyan population could afford it.
              • 3 Bridge International Academies pupils in Kenya have been awarded scholarships to complete secondary school in the U.S.
                • International donors can pay through Mpesa using the Second Wave app.
              • Scripted schooling for $6 a month


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